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science chapter 4

pigments make up the color of a leaf.gathers suns energy, priccipal pigment in plants is chlorphyll
chlorophyll absorbs light in the bleu and red regions but not green because green is the most reflected so thats what we see
chloroplast organelles indide of plnat cells where photosynthesis happens
thyakoids the inner membrane of rhe chlorolplast forms stacks of connected sacs
stroma gel-like material around grana
grana thyalkoid stack
light reactions first reaction that occurs in thalakiod membranes also called independent reaction
photosystems makeup of clusters of chlorophyll molecules and embedded in the thylakioid membranes
Calvin cycle second reaction occurs in the stroma also called light independent reactions
ATP is used in stroma to make carbohydrates like a glucose
NADP + takes on/picks up high-energy electrons and hytrogen ions from the light reactions to form NADPH
NADPH carries energy be passed on to the calvin cycle
what do light reactions use light energy for to split water producing oxygen and h ions
ATP synthase it recives energy from H+ ions to bid phosphate to ADP making ATP , enzyme in the thlakoid memberane
what is the puropse of the calvin cycle it is where the cell makes sugars and other organic molecules like proteins and lipids
carbon fixataiton the processes of fixing carbon to form that can be used
where does the calvin cycle occur in the stroma of the chloroplast
what factors affect the rate of photosynthesis light intensity, temperature, co2 and 02 concentration, water avaliablity and humidity
principle of limiting factors says that the max rate of photosynthesis is limited by whichever basic resource of plant growth is in least supply Ex. light intensity, temperature, co2
photinhibition a decline in photosynthesis by excess light causes chlorophyll to accumulate electrons faster than it can transfer them during the light reactions
Photorespiration when reubisco fixes O2 NOT CO2, this occurs only in light, rates increases with temperature, it joins it to RuBP. it makes one molecule of PGA and one of phosphoglycolate, results when oxygen levles are high or CO2 is really low
photospholglycate can be broken down to carbon dioxide but the plant has still lost fixed carbon atoms because of this
which organisms have the greatest problem with photorespiration c3 plants
high energy photons have short wavelengths
what occurs during the light reactions electron transport, chemoiosmosis, spliting of water
the final product of the calvin cycle gp3
calvin are limited by co2, temperature and light
oxygen that is realeased as o2 molecules during photosyntiesis comes from what water moelcules
light reactions of photosynthesis happen where thlakoid membranes
the electron transport chain, H+ ions are used for atp synthase
during photosynthesis carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in the calvin cycle
carbon dioxide is converted to pga then g3p during the calvin cycle
photoinhabition when the rate of photosynthesis declines due to light intensity, photosynthesis increases and all will increase as longs as factors are educate but eventually one factor will run out
palisade layer holds the most chloroplasts for maximum light absorption
Thylakoid membranes the electron transport chain and atp synthase can be found throughout this
Photorespiration O2 binds to RuBP instead of CO2 to RuBP which makes PGA and phosphate causing a lot of fixed carbon atoms to be lost
chromatography the process of separating pigments in a leaf
where does energy come from to convert co2 to glucose in the calvin cycle atp and nadph
what happpens to the g3p that isnt used to make organic molecules in the calvin cycle it is recycled to make more rubp
when photons of light enter the thylakoids and water is split, what are the H+ ions and electrons used for the are used to make ATP and to convert NADP+ to NADPH which is an energy carrier
what does ribsico bind together RuPB+ CO2 = PGA which is sugar/G3P
cuticle waxy layer that prevents water from being lost by evaporation
lower/upper epidermis protects tissues inbetween the layers
stomata pair of sausage shapped cells that change shape to open and close a pre that minimize water loss and puts out gasses
palaside mesophyll cells convert the suns energy into chemical energy most chloroplasst are located here
spongy mesophyll contains lots of gaps for air O2 and CO2 morve through
what does the vascular bundle consist of xylem and phloem
xylem transports water
phloem transports nutrients
equation for photosynthesis 6C02 + 6H20 + Sunlight Energy =C6H12O6
what happens in the thalkoids light reactions and it consists of photosystems
what goes into the light reactions h2o, co2 - atmosphere ADP- ATP, Light- sun, NADP- grana, phosphate- calvin cycle
what leaves light reactions ATP, NADPH - calvin cycle O2- atmosphere
what enters the calvin cycle ATP, NADPH - light reactions, C02- atmosphere
what leaves the calvin cycle sugar- consumption, G3P - making glucose, NADP, ADP- light reactions
why do plants have multiple pigments they want to absorb as much light for an energy source
why does a plant photosynthesize under blue light blue is one of the colors asorbed so it is still used as energy
what does Rubisco do int the calvin cycle it fixes cod to bind RuBP to CO2 to make Sugar/G3P
in cross section of leaf where will the most photosynthesis occur in palisade mespphyll because it is towards the top of the leaf so ti has high absorption and the most chloroplasts
CAM plant fix carbon dioxide at night using pepco and conserve water the best
ultimate goal of photosynthesis produce glucose and other organic materials
products of photosynthesis role in carbon cycle removes co2 from the atmosphere and produces o2 in which animals use to produce CO2
Created by: emassmann



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