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study guide- Continental Drift, Earthquakes & Volcanoes, and Plates.

Where do volcanoes & earthquakes occur? All over the world, generally near the coasts, where the plates meet
What are patterns associated with earthquakes & volcanoes? Earthquakes and volcanoes occur near each other in clusters or chains (usually, sometimes in ¨random¨ locations), near the plates
Who proposed the theory of Continental Drift? Alfred Wegener
What did the theory of Continental Drift suggest? That the continents were once one ¨Pangaea¨ and some how moved to where they are today
Wegener had evidence to support his theory that included? Plant fossils, animal fossils, puzzle piece shapes, Antarctica climate change, glacial scarring, and rock sequences
Plant and animal fossil evidence supports the theory how? The evidence shows that the same species of plants and animals were found on continents that are now far apart and separated by an ocean. This shows that they might have once been together
Climate change in Antarctica supports the theory how? Antarctica used to be warm, but is now very cold and covered in ice. This suggests that movement caused the dramatic climate change to occur
Glacial scarring supports the theory how? Glaciers on the continents left markings that show the direction of movement. This movement, along with various continents once being covered in ice, that are now hot and dry, indicate movement or change
Rock sequences support the theory how? Rock sequences show that continents that are separated by an ocean today, are made up of the same ordering of rocks. This shows they might have been one continent
Why was the theory not supported by other scientists? They thought the continents were a permanent structure and Wegener did not have reasoning for how the continents could have moved
Where does ocean floor spreading occur? In the ocean, where under water ridges (or mountain ranges) occur
What happens during sea floor spreading? Magma rises up from the ocean floor, and moves outward. This motion forms new land, and creates movement
How does ocean floor spreading support continental drift? The motion created through the magma moving the plates, could support the continents moving as well
What is formed through ocean floor spreading? New land is formed, when magma rising, cools
True or false, the ocean floor is the same age? False
Why/how do we know the ocean floor is not the same age? Because new land is forming at the center of the ridge and moving outward, the land is younger at the center, and older farther away from the ridge
The Earth is made up of plates, what are the plates (describe)? The plates are pieces of land that make up the surface of the Earth. They are all different shapes and sizes, they are flat, and they move
Where are the plates? What do they include? The plates are pieces of the entire surface of the Earth. They include both continents and sea floor
What is a model? Why do we use them? A model is a visual representation of something. They are used to communicate information and express an idea
What are characteristics of a ¨good¨ model? A good model is clear, simple, includes only the most important details
When we modeled the plates, which model showed the plates most clearly and why? Answers will vary. You must support your reasoning with evidence
During the two demonstrations in class (fish tank), what happened to the hot water (red)? The hot water rose to the top of the tank, quicker than cold
During the two demonstrations in class (fish tank), what happened to the cold water (blue)? The cold water sank to the bottom of the tank, slower than warm
Why did the hot water rise and cool water sink? Explain convection... Hot water is less dense and rises, cold water is more dense and sinks. Convection works with liquids and gases. Eg. Hot air balloon, basement cold, attic hot
What did the water represent in the model? (the tank) The water represents magma (liquid rock) in the mantle, moving (through convection)
What did the heat source (hot water under the tank) represent in the model? The heat represented the inner parts of the Earth, the mantle and core
What did the cardboard represent in the model? The cardboard represents the plates
What did the cardboard do during the demonstration? The cardboard moved around on the water. This shows how the magma (water) could move the plates (cardboard)
Created by: LizzieXoX188
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