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Cells

TermDefinition
active transport the process by which cells use energy to transport molecules through the cell membrane from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration
amino acids any one of several building blocks of protein
cell the basic unit of structure and function that makes up all organisms
cell membrane the thin boundary between the cell and its environment
cell respiration the process in which nutrients are broken apart, releasing the chemical energy stored in them
chloroplast the green organelle that contains chlorophyll; where photosynthesis takes place
circulation the flow of materials within a cell as well as between parts of a multicellular organism
cytoplasm the jellylike substance that is between the cell membrane and the nucleus and that contains specialized structures
diffusion the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
digestion the process that breaks down large food molecules into simpler molecules that the organism can use
enzymes proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in living things
excretion the removal of all the wastes produced by the cells of the body
homeostasis the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment even when the external environment changes
hormone a chemical produced in the endocrine glands
immunity the body's ability to destroy pathogens before they cause disease
inorganic a type of molecule that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen but can contain any other combination of elements
metabolism all the chemical reactions that occur within the cells of an organism
mitochondria pod-shaped organelles that contain enzymes used to extract energy from nutrients
nucleus a large structure within a cell that controls the cell's metabolism and stores genetic information, including chromosomes and DNA
organ a body structure made of different kinds of tissues combined to perform a specific function
organ system several organs that work together to perform a major function in the body
organelle a structure within the cell that carries out a specific function
organic term used to describe molecules that contain both hydrogen and carbon
receptor molecule certain protein molecules in the cell membrane that can receive chemical messages from other cells
reproduction the process by which organisms produce new organisms of the same type
respiration the process by which the chemical bond energy stored in nutrients is released for use in cells
ribosome one of the tiny structures in the cell that is the site of protein production
simple sugars the result of the digestion of starches. Example: glucose
synthesis a life process that involves combining simple substances into more complex substances
tissue a group of specialized cells that perform a specific function
vacuole storage sacs within the cytoplasm of a cell that may contain either wastes or useful materials, such as water or food
Created by: WGZimm