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Enzyme Proteins made by living cells, arebiological catalysts, break down molecules, build up molecules, they have an active site that only substrate can fit in.
Stomata Tiny holes where gas exchange occur
Guard Cells Cells that can chnage shape and open or close the stomata
Phloem Tubes that take glucose formed during photosynthisis to other parts of the plant
Xylem Vessels that bring water to the leaf from the soil.
Chlorophyll Green substanceinside leaf that traps energy from the light.
Spongy mesophyll Irregular-shaped cells thatprovide airspaces that allow gases todiffuse to andfrom cells.
Pallisade mesophyll The layer near the top of the leaf so that the pallisade cells get plenty of light. Pallisade cells contain lots of chloroplasts forphotosynthisis.
Cuticle A waxy layer that prevents water being lost from the top of the leaf
Lower Epidermis Thin layer that supports bottom of leaf.
Upper epidermis Thin layer that supports the top of the leaf.
Photosynthisis Photo=Light Synthisis= To make Can only take place during the day. Carbon dioxide + Water ---> Glucose + Oxygen 6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Calcium Maintain strong bones, also needed for muscles andnerves to function properly. Found in dairy and fish
Iron Is needed tomake haemoglobin which is in the red blood cell. Found in red meat and dark green veges.
Vitamin D Is needed toenable calcium to be absorped bythe gut. Rickets:Weak bones and teeth.
Vitamin C Protects cells from damage production of collagen that helps wounds to heal, also helps absorption of iron from plant foods. Scurvy: Fatigue, swollen gums,loss of teeth etc. Found in Citrus fruits.
Proteins Chemical makeup of carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, (CHON)gives some energy, important for building new cells, making enzymes and defending us against disease. Made up of amino acids. Protein = Biuret = Purple
Lipids Chemical make up, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (CHO). Also provide energy ( More than carbohydrates) insulation. Made up of simple sugars. Fats = Ethanol = Milky White
Carbohydrates Chemical makeup of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen ( CHO) Main source of energy. Made up of fatty acids and glycergol. Starch= Iodine = Blue-Black Glucose = Heat = Brick red-Orange
Denatured Enzymes altered by heat causing change in shape.
Catalysts Is a substance that speeds up chemical reactions without being used up.
Active Site Only certain molecules (Substrate)can fit into in order to react
Semi-permeable membrane Allows only some substances through
Flaccid When cell is not completely full with water
Turgid When cell is full with water.
Diffusion The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentrations.
Osmosis Diffusion of water
Nucleus Contains genetic material that carries the instructions that control the structure and activities of the cell. (Found in animal and plant cells)
Cytoplasm Contains the cell organelles (Found in animal and plant cells)
Cell membrane Controls passage of substances into andout of cell (Found in animal and plant cells)
Cell Wall A rigid wall that gives shape to plant cells (Found in plant cells only)
Vacuole Contains water and dissolved substances and keep the pressure in plant cells. (Animals may contain small vacuole) (Found in plant cells only)
Chloroplasts Where photosynthisis takes place (Found in plant cells only)
Transpiration Water evaporates from mesophyll cell surface forming water vapour which can leave through the stomata
Stamen The male part of the flower which consists of the anther and the filament
Filament Supports the anther
Anther Produces the pollen
Sepal Protects the flower when it is bud
Petals Attracts insects for pollination
Created by: Vachrisa



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