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Biology Ch. 4 Vocab

Weather day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation, and other factors
Climate average year-to-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area over a long period of time
microclimate environmental conditions within a small area that differ significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
greenhouse effect process in which certain gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor) trap sunlight energy in Earth's atmosphere as heat
tolerance ability of an organism to survive and reproduce under circumstances that differ from their optimal conditions
habitat area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
niche full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
resource any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
Competitive exclusion principle principle that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
predation interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another one
herbivory interaction in which one animal feeds on the producers
keystone species single species that is not usually abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on the structure of a community
symbiosis relationship in which two species live close together
mutualism symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
parasitism symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
commensalism symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
ecological succession series of gradual changes that occur in a community following a disturbance
primary succession succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present
pioneer species first species to populate an area during succession
secondary succession type of succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbances
canopy dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
understory layer in a rain forest found underneath the canopy formed by shorter trees and vines
deciduous term used to refer to a type of tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year
coniferous term used to refer to trees that produce seed-bearing cones and have tin leaves shaped like needles
humus material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
taiga biome with long cold winters and a few months of warm weather
permafrost layer of permanently frozen subsoil found in the tundra
Photic zone sunlight region near surface of water
Aphotic Zone dark layer the oceans below the photic zone where sunlight does not penetrate
benthos organisms that live attached to or near the bottom of lakes, streams, or oceans
plakton microscopic organsims that live in aquatic environments; include both phytoplankton and zooplankton
wetland ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year
Estuary kind of wetland formed where a river meets the ocean
Created by: carlieanncoleman