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Microbiolo Chapter7

Are acquired from the environment and used for cellular activities Nutrients
Any substance, whether in elemental or molecular form that must be provided to an organism Essential nutrient
Required in relatively large quantities play principal roles in cell structure and metabolism Micronutrients
Present in smaller amounts Involved in enzymes function and maintenence of protein structure Micronutrients
Simple molecule that contains a combination of atoms than carbon and oxygen Inorganic Nutrients
Contain carbon and hydrogen atoms usually the product of living things Organic Nutrients
An organism that must obtain is carbon in organic form dependent on other life forms Heterotroph
Self feeder Not dependent on other living things Autotroph
Nitrogen must be converted to _____ before it enters the cell NH3
Major component of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins Oxygen Source
Maintain pH form hydrogen bonds between molecules hydrogen sources
Main inorganic source is PO4 come from H3PO4 Phosphorus Source
Microbes that photosynthesize Phototroph
Microbes that heron energy from chemical compounds Chemotrophs
Capture energy from light rays and transform into chemical energy that can be used for cell metabolism Photo autotroph
Use organic compounds for energy and inorganic compounds as a carbon source CARBON Chemo autotroph
Chemo autotroph that produce methane from hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide Methanogens
Derived both carbon and energy from organic molecules organic molecules processed through respiration or fermentation and produce ATP Chemo heterotroph
Principle energy yielding pathway in animal,protozoa, fungi, and aerobic bacteria Aerobic respiration
Free LIVING microorganisms that feed primarily on organic detritus from dead organisms Saprobes
Derive nutrients from the cell or living tissues of host Parasites
live on or in the body and cause some degree of harm to the host consisted pathogens bc they can damage tissues and cause death Parasitic Microorganisms
Live on the body Ectoparasites
Live in organisms and tissues Ectoparasites
Live within cells Intracellular parasites
Unable to live outside of a living host Obligate parasites
The movement of molecules across the cell membrane ex. Tea Diffusion
The external environment is equal to the cell's internal environment EQUAL Isotonic conditions
The movement of water across a selective permeable membrane Osmosis
pure H20 HYDRATION cells without walls can sell and burst Hypotonic Conditions
High osmotic pressure forces water to diffuse out of the cell DEHYDRATION Hypertonic conditions
Wet (soaked) the rate of transport of a substance is limited by the number of binding sites on the transport protein (no more binding sites) Saturation
Big one wins! Two molecules of the same shape can bind to the dame binding site I'm the carrier Competition
Transport nutrients against a concentration gradient or with a concentration gradient at a faster rate Active Transport
Transport large molecules, particles, or liquids across the cell membrane by certain eukaryotes Endocytosis
Range of temperatures die given microbial species Cardinal Temperature
The lowest temperature that permits a microbes continuous growth abs metabolism Minimum temperature
Highest temperature at which growth and metabolism can process Maximize temperature
Intermediate temperature range between maximum and Minimum Optimum temperature
Three Categories: those that use oxygen and can detoxify it those than can neither issue oxygen nor detoxify it those that do not use oxygen but can detoxify it Gas Categories
Extremely reactive molecule produced both by living and nonliving processes Singlet Oxygen (O)
O2- Superoxide ion
H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide
OH- Hydroxyl radicals
Destructive metabolic byproducts of oxygen Superoxide,hydrogen peroxide,hydroxyl radials
Can use gaseous oxygen in its metabolism Aerobe (Aerobic organism)
An organism that cannot frown without oxygen Obligate aerobe
An aerobe that does not require oxygen for its metabolism Capable of growth in the absence of oxygen Facultative anaerobe
Doesn't grow at normal atmospheric conditions of oxygen Microaerophile
Lacks the metabolic enzyme system for using oxygen STRICT or OBLIGATE ANAEROBES can't tolerate free oxygen and will die in its presence Anaerobe
don't utilize oxygen can survive and grow to a limited extent in it's presence Aerotolerant Anaerobes
The degree of alkalinity (or basicity) of a solution expressed on a scale from 0-14 pH
Neutral at a pH of 7.0 Pure water
As the pH value increases towards 14 Alkalinity increases
As the pH decreases towards 0 Acidity increases
Require high concentrations of salt for growth Obligate Hali Halophiles
Resistant to salt, even though they don't normally reside in high salt environments Facultative Halophiles
Require an acidic environment for growth Obligate acidophiles
Require basic environment to grow Alkalinophiles
Deep sea microbes Barophiles
A generous term used to denote a situation in which TWO organisms LIVE together in a CLOSE partnership Symbiosis
Exist when organisms live in an OBLIGATORY butt MUTUAL beneficial relationship Mutualism
Commensal and coin habitat are what? Commensalism
Receives benefits Commensal
Neither harmed nor benefitted Coinhabitant
Arises when one member provides nutritional or protective factors needed by the other Satellitism
Host and parasite are examples of what Parasitic Parasitism
Provides the parasitic microbe with nutrients and a habitat Host
Multiplication of the parasite usually harm most to some extent Parasite
Arises when members of a community compete Antagonism
The production of inhibitory compounds, such as antibiotics Antibiosis
An interrelationship between two or more free living organisms that benefits both but is not necessary for their survival Synergism
Parent cell enlarges Binary fission
The time required for a complete fission cycle Generation time or (doubling time)
The growth pattern of microbes number of cells as a function of time Exponential growth
A predictable pattern of growth in a population Growth curve
What is the Basis of Population Growth ? Binary fission
Population enters survival mode Stationary growth phase
Curves Dips downward Death phase
Flay period on the graph when the population appears not to be growing Lag phase
Period during which the growth curve increases dramatically Exponential growth or log phase
What term describes an organism that lacks superoxide dismutase and catalyst enzymes? obligate anaerobes
Created by: CaylahMone



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