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Neuros and Communications

Neurons Cell that is specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system ...create and transmit information about what we experience and know. They are individual cells (Cajal) It comes in different sizes and shapes so they look different .
Transduction Transformation of a physical stimulus into a neural signal. It is the action to take something psychical from the world and turn it to a neural signal. An example is our 5 senses, taste, vision, touch, hearing, smell. Taste=transform= neural signal
Dendrite Branch out of the cell body (Dendron ='tree' in Greek) Receive signal from other cells, then transmits them to the cell body. Structures that branch out from the cell body to receive electrical signal from other neurons.
Cell body (Soma) Contains structures to keep neuron alive. Collects signals from other cells. Contains mechanisms that keep the cell alive. Receive information from other neurons.
Axon Transmits a signal if the soma decides to generate one. Part of the neuron that transmits signals from the cell body to the synapse at the end of the axon.
Action Potential Propagated electrical potential responsible for transmitting neural information and for communication between neurons. It typically travel down a neuron's axon. Cell body acts like an adding machine. Sums up signals from the dendrites. If the sum is
All-or-none If the cell body (some) has enough action potential, the neuron "fires' an action potential or if it hasn't enough it doesn't "fire" it.
Firing Rate A neuron can change the rate at which it fires action potentials because it depends how excited is the neuron.
Neural Communication The axon of one neuron contacts the dendrites of other neurons. Dendrites of one neuron will receive input from the axons of thousands of other neurons.
Synapse Between the axons and dendrites, have a tiny gap called _____. It's through this that neurotransmitters are transfer from the axon to the dendrites.
Neurotransmitter Two important types of effects: -Excitatory: increases the neuron's firing rate -Inhibitory: reduces (inhibits) the neuron's firing rate
Excitatory effects
Inhibitory effects
Brain -Weighs about 3 pounds -The brain is more or less symmetrical on the left and right -It contains roughly 100 billion neurons. Each neuron connects to between 1,000-10,000 other neurons so that's over 100 trillion connections in your brain!
Navigation Around the brain Up: Dorsal/Superior the opposite (down) Ventral/Inferior Front: Anterior the opposite (back) posterior Dorsal vs. Ventral Anterior vs. posterior Superior vs. Inferior Lateral (sides of the brain) Medial (in the meddle) and Lateral
Major divisions of the brain Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain
Hindbrain Sits around the top of the spinal cord. It is the most primitive part of the brain. Cerebellum deals with balance.
Midbrain Sits a top of the final cord
Forebrain -"Newest" part of the brain. -By far the largest part of our brains.
Major composes of the Forebrain -Limbic system -Cerebral cortex
Limbic System Four components: -Amygdala -Hippocampus -Thalamus -Hypothamus
Amygdala A subcortical structure that is involved in processing emotional aspects of experience, including memory for emotional aspects of experience, including memory for emotional events. Anger, aggression, and fear.
Hippocampus A subcortical structure that is important for forming long term memories, and that also plays a role in remote episodic memories and in short-term storage of novel information. -Critical for forming new memories
Thalamus A subcortical structure of the Limbic System -Relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex -Neurons from the eye and inner ear pass through here
Hypothalamus A subcortical structure of the Limbic System -On top of the pituitary gland -Important to metabolism, eating, drinking, sexual behaviors, and emotional arousal
Cerebral cortex The 3-mm-think outer layer of the brain that contains the mechanisms responsible for higher mental functions such as perception, language, thinking, and problem solving.
Cerebral cortex is separated in 4 lobes -Frontal Lobe -Parietal Lobe -Temporal Lobe -Occipital Love
Frontal Lobe The love in the front of the brain that serves higher functions such as language, thought, memory, and motor functioning. -Decision making -Motor control -Language output
Parietal Lobe The lobe at the top of the brain that contains mechanisms responsible for sensations caused by stimulation of the skin and also some aspects of visual information. -Somatosensory input -Attention
Temporal Love The lobe on the side of the brain that contains mechanisms responsible for language, memory, hearing, and vision. -Auditory processing -Language input -Object recognition
Occipital Lobe The lobe at the back of the brain that is devoted primarily to analyzing incoming visual information
Contralateral control -"Contra = opposite -Lateral = side -Each half of the brain controls the opposite side of the body
Corpus Callosum -Connects the two brain halves -So it connects hundreds of millions of neurons -Enables communication between the two halves of the brain. - Anything processed by one side get to the other side quickly
Cognitive neuroscience Field concerned with studying the neural basis of cognition. Studying cognitive processes by looking at the brain and neural processes. What parts of the brain perform which cognitive processes? What brain areas are active? What cognitive processes are
Neuropsychology Studying patients with brain damage.
Single dissociation -Anything that affects one process without affecting another process -Doesn't show that the two processes are fundamentally different. -To show they are different, you need a double dissociation.
Double dissociation -Affect two processes independently of each. -Can there be a hart-attack patient who can run but not walk? -Most amnesia patients have problems with LTM, but not with STM, but some patients have it the other way around.
PET and fMRI Brain Imaging They measure blood flow to areas of the brain, not neural activity. -Active areas of the brain need more blood, so blood flow is related to actively. -Blood flow changes about 1 sec after an area becomes more active
Created by: Arlette24



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