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Biology Lab

Unit 2

Xylem conducts water and minerals up from the soil.
Phloem conducts organic nutrients from one part of the plant to another.
microphylls leaves with a single, unbranched vein
sporophylls Modified leaves that bear sporangia
strobili Groups of sporophylls form cone-like structures
Megaspores develop into female gametophytes
microspores develop into male gametophytes
Heterospory a trait shared with seed plants.
megaphylls leaves with branched vascular systems.
pterophytes seedless, vascular plant
Whisk ferns seedless vascular plants that closely resemble the first vascular plants
Horsetails jointed stems and large strobili at their stem tips.
Ferns very leafy; leaves arise from an underground stem
rhizome underground stem
Sori Structures containing Sporangia
seed consists of an embryo and its food supply, surrounded by a protective coat.
heterosporous producing two different types of sporangia that produce two types of spores
integument a layer of sporophyte tissue that envelops and protects the megasporangium
Gymnosperm surrounded by one integument
Angiosperm surrounded by two integuments
ovule consists of the megasporangium, megaspores, and integument
pollen grain consisting of a male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall
pollination transfer of pollen to the vicinity of the ovule
Phylum Ginkgophyta consists of only a single extant species, Ginkgo biloba
Cycads have large cones and palmlike leaves
Phylum Gnetophyta consists of three very different genera
Weltwitschia plants from deserts in southwestern Africa, have straplike leaves that are among the largest known leaves
Gentum species tropical trees or vines
Ephedra a shrub of the American deserts
Conifer include pines, firs, spruces, larches, yews, junipers, cedars, cypresses, and redwoods; evergreen, retaining their leaves and photosynthesizing throughout the year
Anthophyta a single phylum where all angiosperms are placed in
flower an angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction
fruit usually consists of a mature ovary, although it may include other flower parts as well
eudicots “true” dicots
basal angiosperms the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants
magnoliids one of the eight major groups that the flowering plants, or angiosperms, are divided into
sepals a ring of modified leaves that enclose and protect the growing flower bud
stamen consists of a thin, stem like filament and an anther
anther where haploid pollen grains are produced
pistil consists of a sticky stigma
stigma a style, which connects the stigma to the top of the ovary
ovary where the ovules are enclosed
Yeasts single-celled fungi
hyphae vegetative bodies of multicellular fungi are constructed of tiny filaments
mycelium hyphae that form an interwoven mat that infiltrates the material on which the fungus feeds
chitin a strong but flexible nitrogen-containing polysaccharide identical to that found in arthropods
septa fungi that are multicellular with hyphae divided into cells by cross walls
mycorrhizae Mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots
Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of the plant root and grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend their branching hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane
plasmogamy The union of the cytoplasm of the two parent mycelia
karyogamy the fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by two parents, occurs well after plasmogamy, the cytoplasmic fusion of cells from the two parents
dikaryotic a mycelium that has two nuclei
molds form visible mycelia; grow rapidly and produce many spores asexually
haustoria specialized hyphae that allow some unique fungi them to penetrate the tissues of their host
zygomycetes exhibit great diversity of life histories
zygosporangia the site of karyogamy and then meiosis; resistant to freezing and drying, can survive unfavorable conditions
Created by: danat214