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BIOL 156

Introduction to the Human Body

QuestionAnswer
How is anatomy related to physiology? Structure is related to function ex) fingers are loosely jointed to allow movement
How is anatomy different from physiology? anatomy studies relationships between internal and external body structures. physiology studies how a structure functions
What are 2 different types of anatomy? gross anatomy (examining large structures) and microscopic anatomy (examining small structures with magnification)
What are 3 types of physiology? Systemic (body systems), Cell (cell functions), and Pathophysiology (how disease affects the function of systems).
What are 2 invasive techniques to examine the body? Surgery (exploratory) and Autopsy (postmortem examination/dissection of organs to determine cause of death)
What are 4 low tech examining techniques? Inspection (observation ex. redness), Palpation (feel body surfaces ex.taking pulse) , Auscultation (listen to body sounds ex.detecting abnormal shortness in breath) , Percussion (tap body surface for resulting echo ex.detection of fluid in lungs)
What are the 4 types of X-Rays? conventional radiography, computed tomography, Spiral CT Scan, and radiopaque ingestion
What is better, conventional radiography or commuted tomography (CT) Computed tomography is preferred because it is 3D, and provides soft tissue detail like the kidneys.
How does radiopaque ingestion work? When you swallow a radioactive material like barium, it lines the gastrointestinal tract.
How does DSA work? Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) injects radiopaque material into the blood vessels to provide images
What are 3 other high tech medical imaging techniques? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI- high energy field differentiates normal and abnormal tissues), Sonography or Ultrasounds, and Positron Emission Tomography (PET scanning- substance emits gamma rays detected by cameras)
What are the 6 levels of body organization? Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism
What are the 6 characteristics of the living human? Metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, and reproduction.
What are the 2 chemical processes in metabolism? Catabolism (breakdown of complex molecules), and anabolism (build up of simple molecules)
Give an example of how humans have responsiveness Being able to detect change in external temperatures/ Detecting a sound and facing it
What is differentiation? changes in cell from an unspecialized state to a specialized state ex) stem cells to abc and wbc
What is homeostasis? the use of self regulating processes by biological systems to maintain relatively constant environments
What 2 general mechanisms control homeostasis? auto regulation, and extrinsic regulation
What is the difference between auto regulation and extrinsic regulation? Autoregulation involve environmental changes causing organ systems to respond whereas extrinsic regulation involve the nervous and endocrine system using electrical or chemical systems
What role to feedback systems play? they monitor controlled conditions ex) blood, body temperature, bp
What disrupts homeostasis? stimulus (pl:stimuli)
What are the 3 main parts that make up a feedback system? receptor (detect change/ send nerve or chemical signals to cc), control centre (sets range of values/ evaluates/ sends output to effectors), effectors (body structure produces response to enhance or oppose stimulus)
What is the difference between positive and negative feedback systems? positive fbs chances original stimulus, negative fbs reverses original stimulus
How does negative feedback systems control thermoregulation? stimulus causes rise in body temp, temp sensors sends impulses to hypothalamus, brain sends impulses to sweat glands and blood vessels (effectors), and vasodilation and sweating allows restoration of homeostasis
How does positive feedback systems benefit blood clotting? severe cuts lead to chemicals released, more chemicals are released to accelerate the clotting, blood vessel is patched up and bleeding stops
Which feedback system is more common? the negative is more common. the positive is only used in potentially dangerous or stressful processed where there is time sensitivity
Name 5 homeostatic imbalances disorder, disease, symptoms, signs, and diagnosis
What are 2 different disease types? local (limited region), and systemic (many parts/entire body)
What is the difference between symptoms and signs? Symptoms are changes in body functions that can be observed ex) headache, nausea but Signs are observed and measurable ex) high bp, fever, rash
Explain the anatomical position and its importance the subject is erect, facing observer, hands at sides, palms forward and feet flat on the floor. it allows precision and consistent anatomical references
Define 2 reclining positions Prone (body lying face down), Supine (body lying face up)
face, head, eye, ear, nose, mouth facial, cephalic, orbital, otic, nasal, oral
cranial region skull
cervical region neck
chest, abdomen, pelvis thoracic, abdominal, pelvic
buttocks gluteal region
arm brachial region
hand manual region
thigh, foot, ole femoral, pedal plantar
up and down superior and inferior
front and back anterior and posterior
towards the head cephalic/superior
towards the tail caudal/inferior
that goes before ventral/anterior
that which follow dorsal/posterior
nearest and distant proximal and distal
towards the midline/ away from the midline medical and lateral
towards the body/ interior of the body superior and deep
angio- vessel
arthro- joint
auto- self
bio- life
carcin- cancer
entero- intestine
erythro- red
gastr- stomach
glyco- sugar
gyno- woman
myo- muscle
nephr- kidneys
neuro- nerve
ocul- eye
odont- tooth
cardi- heart
cephal- head
cerebro- brain
chondr- cartilage
cost- rib
cranio- skull
derm- skin
hem/hemato- blood
hepato- liver
histo- tissue
hydro- water
hyster- uterus
leuko- white
lip/lipo- fat
Oo- egg
osteo- bone
patho- disease
phag- to eat
pneum- air
pulmo- lung
therm- heat
A- without
Anti- against
Bi- two
Cyan- blue
De- from/away
Di- twice
Dis- apart/away from
Ecto- outside
ef-/ex- out of/away from
end-/endo- within
epi- upon
extra- outside, beyond, in addition
hetero- other
semi-/hemi- one half
homeo-/homo- same/similar
hyper- above
hypo- under
infra- beneath
inter- between
intra- within
iso- equal
macr- large
melan- black
micr- small
mono- single
oligo- little/few
peri- around
poly- many
post- after
pre-/pro- before
sub- below
super- above/ beyond
supra- on the upper side
trans- through
-ac/-al penetrating to
-asis, -asia, -osis style/ condition
-ectomy/-tomy excision
-gen/-genic to produce
-ia state/condition
-itis inflammation
-logy study of
-lysis a loosening
-pathy disease
-phil/-philic love
-phobia fear
-scope to view
-septic putrid
-trophy nourishment
-uria urine
What are the 3 planes and sections? sagittal (midline), frontal (coronal), transverse (cross section)
What is the difference between midsagittal and parasagittal? mid sagittal is two even left and right portion whereas parasagittal is uneven
What are the 2 main body cavities? Dorsal and Ventral
What are the 2 subdivisions of the dorsal body cavity? cranial (brain and cranial bones) and vertebral canal (vertebrae and spinal cord)
What organ divides the ventral body cavity? diaphragm
What are the 2 parts of the ventral body cavity? the thoracic cavity, and abdominopelivc cavity contain viscera
What is contained in the thoracic cavity? left and right pleural cavities enclosing the lungs, mediastinum (heart, lungs blood vessels, trachea), pericardial cavity
What are the 2 parts of the abdominopelvic cavity? superior abdominal cavity and inferior pelvic cavity
What viscera is contained in the superior abdominal cavity? stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, small intense, and majority of the large intestine
What viscera is contained in the inferior pelvic cavity? urinary bladder, parts of the large intestine, female and male reproductive structures
What is three parts of a serous membrane? parietal layer, visceral layer, ad serous fluid
Created by: skinnypigs