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Chapter 27

peptidoglycan a network of sugar polymers cross-linked by polypeptides
Gram stain used to classify bacteria by cell wall composition
Gram-positive bacteria have simpler walls with a large amount of peptidoglycan
Gram-negative bacteria have less peptidoglycan and an outer membrane that can be toxic
capsule a polysaccharide or protein layer covers many prokaryotes
fimbriae allow them to stick to their substrate or other individuals in a colony
Pili are longer than fimbriae and allow prokaryotes to exchange DNA
taxis the ability to move toward or away from a stimulus
plasmid a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently
endospores enable bacteria to lie dormant for extended periods
transformation when a prokaryotic cell can take up and incorporate foreign DNA from the surrounding environment
Transduction movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria)
F factor piece of DNA required for the production of pili
R plasmids carry genes for antibiotic resistance
Obligate aerobes require O2 for cellular respiration
Obligate anaerobes poisoned by O2 and use fermentation or anaerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration form of respiration using electron acceptors other than oxygen
Facultative anaerobes can survive with or without O2
nitrogen fixation a process in which nitrogen (N 2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH 3)
heterocysts photosynthetic cells and nitrogen-fixing cells that exchange metabolic products
biofilms surface-coating colonies that enable metabolic cooperation
extremophiles archaea that live in extreme environments
Extreme halophiles live in highly saline environments
Extreme thermophiles thrive in very hot environments
Methanogens live in swamps and marshes and produce methane as a waste product; strict anaerobes and are poisoned by O2
Mycoplasms the smallest known cells
Created by: danat214