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vocab 8&9

ATP compound used by cells to store and release energy
heterotroph organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer
autotroph organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds: also called a primary producer
photosynthesis process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
pigment light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the suns energy
chlorophyll principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
thylakoid saclike potosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
stroma fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside the thylakoids
NAPD+ carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
light-dependent reactions set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
light-independent reactions set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin cycle
photosystem cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
electron transport chain series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
ATP synthase cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions to pass through it
Calvin cycle light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
calorie amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of water by by degree Celsius
cellular respiration process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
aerobic process that requires oxygen
anaerobic process that doesn't require oxygen
glycolysis first set of reactions in cellular respiration in which a molecule is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
NAD+ electron carrier involved in glycolysis
Krebs cycle second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
matrix innermost compartment of the mitchondrion; site of Krebs cycle reactions
fermentation process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
Created by: Sharion Davis



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