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Science MS Praxis 1

Praxis 2 terms for science test

Scientific methods State the problem Make Observations Form a Hypothesis Do an Experiment Draw a conclusion Think POHEC
Pasteur discovered microorganisms
Hook microscopes
Mendel father of genetics, worked with plants
Darwin father of Modern Biology
Newton basically the father of Physics
Kepler dealt with mathematical calculations for determining the distances of celestial bodies
Curie x-rays "mother of radiation"
Einstein work in physics, develop 4 papers (annus Mirabuilus paper)photoelectric effect, molecules & atoms w/ fluids aka Browninan motion, & theory of special relativity light speed doesnt change & changes on vantage pts 4th paper E=mc^2 energy & matter same thing
biology study of living organisms
physics study of forces of nature
chemistry deals with the composition of substances
geology study of earth's processes
astronomy study of celestial bodies
ecology the study of organism interactions with their environments
oceanography study of the world's hydrosphere
Structure and properties of matter Anything that has mass and takes up space, contains both physical & chemical properties
4 states of matter solid, liquid, gas and plasma
Chemical Properties when matter forms another form of matter ex. rusting (can not get the same thing back out)
Physical Properties deals with color, smell, density, buoyancy, boiling, freezing and melting points ex. ripping paper (still paper size only changed)
Abundance of elements in the earth's crust 46% O, 28% Si, 8% Al, 5% Fe, Ca 4%, 2% Na Mg and K, 0.5% Ti and 0.14% H
Abundance of elements in the atmosphere 78% N, 20% O, 1 % Ar, 0.03% CO2
Physical Changes in matter changes only in appearance of a substance, can still be identify as the same matter
Chemical Changes in matter change of an element by exchanging electrons. A new substances is formed
Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can not be created or destroyed but can change its form
Kinetic Energy this exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity. Everything that is moving is this
Potential Energy energy due to position or stored energy, aka gravitational potential energy.
Heat kinetic energy of random molecular motion
Temperature the measure of the degree of hot or coldness of an object
Conduction one object A touching another hot object B and object A becomes hot ex: pot on a burner
Convection fluids transfer by the circulation ex: boiling water, convection oven
radiation doesn't not need a medium ex: sun warming bodies
Thermal Energy matter warms matter. this causes the atoms to vibrate making the heat of the object rise and essentially raising the temperture
Measurement of heat Kelvin (Astronomy) Fahrenheit (US) Celsius (rest of world, metric system, science community)
Convert F to C 5/9 (F - 32)
Convert C to F 9C/5 - 32
Convert C to K C + 273
First law of Thermodynamics You cannot get something out of nothing, because matter and energy are conserved. The amount of heat entered is the same amount of heat/energy that you will get back (You cannot win)
Second law of Thermodynamics You cannot return to the same energy state, because there is always an increase in disorder; entropy always increases. Heat moves from hot to cold, heat cannot be converted & isolated systems become disordered or have entropy. (You cannot break even)
Entropy amount of disorder created in a system
Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute zero is unattainable (You cannot get out of the game.)
Rutherford theory about structure of atoms. presented a new model that included a nucleus and empty space and electrons
Bohr speculated that electrons moved in distinct paths around the nucleus, theorized that electrons could jump from one level to another. Modern scientists have concluded that electrons do not travel in specific paths
Fusion nuclear forces that combine nuclei
Fission divide the nuclei into other elements
Radioisotopes isotopes which spontaneously emit radiation, used in medicines
Radioactivity the atoms making up matter are generally stable, but some of them are spontaneously transformed by emitting radiations which release energy
isotopes atomic nuclei with the same number of protons but with differing numbers of neutrons
half life the time period under which one half of the radioactive cores decay
nuclear reactions a nuclear reactor is like a furnace which produces steam and hot gases. this steam or hot gasses can provide heat directly or drive turbines to generate electricity.
Nuclear reactors uses are used for electric-power generation throughout much of the world as well as for propelling submarines and some surface vehicles. these produce mass amounts of energy, steam and gases, by products need to be safely disposed.
Created by: scandisandi
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