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Bio Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Vocab

TermDefinition
metabolism the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
Catabolic pathway release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds
anabolic pathway consumes energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones
Bioenergetics the study of how energy flows through living organisms
Kinetic Energy energy associated with motion
Heat (thermal) energy kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules
Potential Energy energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
Chemical energy potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
Thermodynamics the study of energy transformations
Isolated System unable to exchange energy or matter with its surroundings
Open System energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings
First Law of Thermodynamics (principle of conservation of energy) Energy can be transferred and transformed but cannot be created or destroyed.
Second Law of Thermodynamics Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe
Entropy (disorder) entropy may decrease in an organism, but the universe's total entropy increases
Spontaneous processes occur without energy input, for this to happen it must increase the entropy of the universe
Free Energy measure of a system's instability, tendency to change to a more stable state
Free Energy Equation deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS
Equilibrium state of maximum stability
Exergonic reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous
Endergonic reaction absorbs free energy from its surroundings and is not spontaneous
Energy Coupling the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
ATP ribose sugar + adenine + 3 phosphate groups
Phosphorylation transferring a phosphate group to some other molecule
Phosphorylated intermediate the recipient molecule of the 3rd phosphate group
Enzyme catalytic protein
Catalyst a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Activation Energy initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction (enzymes lower this barrier to catalyze reactions)
Substrate the reactant that an enzyme acts on
Active site the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds
Induced fit chemical group of the active site in positions that enhance substrate ability to catalyze reactions
Cofactor nonprotein enzyme help, can be organic or inorganic
Coenzyme organic cofactor
Competitive Inhibitor binds to the active site of an enzyme, competing with substrate
Noncompetitive Inhibitor binds to another part of an enzyme, causing enzyme to change shape and make active site less effective
Allosteric Regulation occurs when a regulatory molecule binds to a protein at one site and affects the proteins function at another site
Activator binds to enzyme, stabilizes the active form and stimulates activity
Inhibitor binds to enzyme, stabilizes the inactive form
Cooperativity form of allosteric regulation that can amplify enzyme activity
Feedback Inhibition the end product of a metabolic pathway shuts down the pathway
Created by: 1445396362142503