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Biology Chapter 3.2

Biology Chapter 3.2 Terms and Definitions

TermDefinition
monosaccharide a simple sugar that is in the basic sub unit, or monomer, of a carbohydrate
disaccharide a sugar formed from 2 monosaccharides
polysaccharide one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars, polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
protein an organic compound that is made up of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principle component of all cells
amino acid an organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group and that makes up proteins; a protein monomer
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acids
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme a type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds up the metabolic reactions in plant and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
active sight the sight on an enzyme that attracts to a substrate
lipid a large, nonpolar, organic molecule including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and is a structural component in cell membranes
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) self replicating material present in all living organisms\s, carrier of genetic info
ribonucleic acid (RNA) messenger, controls
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a sub unit that consist of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous
Created by: conoverc20