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ELL Court Decisions

ELL Court Decisions and Legislation

14th Amendment to the US Constitution 1868 "... nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 "separate but equal" public facilities, including school systems, are constitutional (African Am., Native Am., Asian, Hispanic)
Brown v. Board of Education 1954 reversed Plessy v. Ferguson - "separate but equal". US Supreme Court now made it unconstitutional to segregate
Independent School District v. Salvatierra 1930 Mexican American parents in the small border town of Rio, Texas, brought suit against the school district over segregation. The court sided with the school district that argued the segregation was necessary to teach the students English
,Alvarez v. Lemon Grove, and Méndez v. Westminster School District 1931, 1947 Overturned the ruling in Independent School District v. Salvatierra (1930) segregation was not beneficial for the students' English language development; helped set precedence for Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v Board of Education 1954; ruled that states are responsible for providing "equal educational opportunities" for all students, Brown made bilingual education for ELLs more feasible
Meyers v. Nebraska 1923; state court ruling not prevent schools from providing language instruction outside of the hours of regular school study, makes clear that the 14th Amendment provides protection for language minorities
Siman Act 1919; made it illegal for any school, public or private, to provide any foreign language instruction to students below the 8th grade, was joined by Roman Catholic and Lutheran German parochial schools -
Lau v. Nichols 1974; Supreme Court, made it illegal to provide 'sink or swim" education
Lau Remedies 1995; proper approaches, methods and procedures (1) identifying/evaluating language minority students' English skills(2) determine appropriate instructional treatments; (3) decide when LEP ready for mainstream (4) determine professional teaching standar
Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 No state shall deny educational opportunities to individual based on race, color, sex, or national origin; failure of an ed agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by students instructional programs.
Castaneda v. Pickard 1981; (1) based on a sound educational theory, (2) implemented effectively with sufficient resources and personnel, and (3) evaluated to determine whether they are effective in helping students overcome language barriers
Created by: renee.bohaty