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science7 1st 9 weeks

7th Grade Science 1st semester exam with Mrs. Haggard

QuestionAnswer
Qualitative observation Descriptions not described with numbers
Quantitative observation number of things or amount
Mass The amount of material in an object
Volume The amount of space something takes up
Density The mass of a certain volume of a material or mass per unit volume
Triple beam balance A tool that measures how much mass something has
Eukaryote Cells have a nucleus with a membrane around it
Prokaryote Cells that have no membrane around genetic material
Heterotroph cannot make food for itself
Autotroph can make food for itself
Passive transport The movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using celular energy
diffusion The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis Diffusion of WATER molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane using the cells own energy
Photosynthesis The process by which a cell captures the energy in the sunlight and uses it to make food
stomata Small openings on the underside of the leaves
chlorophyll The main pigment found in the chloroplasts
Respiration The process by which cells obtain energy from Glucose(sugar)
Mitosis The process of cell division where one copy of DNA is distributed into two daughter cells (division of the nucleus)
Trait Physical characteristics of organisms
Gene Factors that control traits
Allele The different forms of a gene
Phenotype An organisms physical appearance or visible traits
Genotype An organisms genetic make-up
Dominant Allele An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism
Recessive Allele An allele whose trait is masked in the presence of a dominant allele
Homozygous/pure Genes are alike for a particular trait
Heterozygous/hybrid Genes are different for a particular trait
Meiosis Cell division that produces gametes
Pedigre A chart or family tree that tracks which family members have a particular trait
Punnet square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Karyotype A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
Carrier A person who has one dominant allele for a trait and one recessive allele but doesn't have the trait
Cloning An organism that has exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced
Mutation Any change in a gene or chromosome
Protein synthesis Production of proteins off a DNA strand
Evolution The gradual change in a species over time
Adaptation A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
Variations Any difference between individuals of the same species
Species A group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
Homologous structures Similar structures that related species have inherited fro a common ancestor
Natural selection The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment one more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species
Fossil The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
2 causes of genetic disorders 1. Mutation in DNA of genes 2. Changes in overall structure or number of chromosomes
Protein synthesis takes place in The ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Who are sex linked traits more common in and why Males because they only have one X chromosome
How do you determine if it is a boy or girl You look at chromosome pair 23 and if the chromosomes are the same then it's a girl and if they are different then it's a boy
Differences between DNA and RNA 1. Nitrogen bases(T,A, C,G for DNA) (U,A,C,G for RNA) 2. 2 strands for DNA and 1 strand for RNA 3. Different sugar molecules
Density Equation Mass/Volume
3 parts of cell theory 1. All living things are made of cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function 3. Cells are produced from cells already living
Created by: 2022jgm1