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biology chapter 5, r

flashcards for questions and concepts on chapter five

TermDefinition
fluid mosaic model the term we use to describe the diverse structure of the phospholipid bilayer membrane
selective permeability the ability of a membrane to allow certain molecules through at certain times
diffusion the tendency of molecules of the same kind to separate from each other in a solution
concentration gradient the amount of one molecule on one side of a membrane as there is on the other side
passive transport the ability of a molecule to diffuse across a membrane without any energy cost
osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
tonicity the ability of a surrounding solution to gain or lose water
hypotonic a solution with a concentration lower than that of the cell
isotonic same solution on both sides
hypertonic a concentration higher than outside
facilitated diffusion the use of a transport protein to allow passive transport
aquaporin a transport protein that allows water to be removed and added o the cell in vast quantities
active transport the process of using energy to move a type of solute out or in to the cell
exocytosis the process of moving materials from inside the cell to outside
endocytosis the process of moving materials outside of the cell to the inside
phagocytosis a type of endocytosis where a quantity of material is engulfed by the membrane and then pinched of to form a vesicle
receptor mediated similar to phagocytosis receptors capture a specific type of molecule and then follow the process of phagoctyosis
energy the ability of an object or organism to do something
kinetic energy the energy of a moving or working object
thermal energy the energy of random movement within the molecules of an object
heat the intensity or unit of measure for an amount of thermal energy
potential energy the ability of an object to have kinetic energy, stored energy in preparation to be released
chemical energy the energy stored in chemical bonds in molecules
thermodynamics the study of energy transformation in a collection of matter
first law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred
entropy the measure of disorder or reactions in a sytem
second law of thermodynamics the more energy conversions in a system the more disorderly it will become
exergonic releases energy
endergonic stores energy
metabolism the total of chemical reactions in an organism
metabolic pathway a series of metabolic reactions
ATP adenosine triphosphate, currency of the cell
phosphorylation the process of creating a molecule of atp using atp synthase
enzyme a type of protein that accelerates ( catalyzes) chemical reactions
activation energy the barrier or cost of energy to make a chemical reaction
substrate the specific type of molecule that an enzyme bonds to while catalyzing
active site the part of the substrate that the enzyme attaches to
induced fit the natural shape of an enzyme connecting to a substrate
competitive inhibitor a molecule that binds to an enzyme that is not a substrate, making the enzyme functionless
noncompetitive inhibitor an inhibitor that alters the shape of an enzyme
the increase of receptors in an environment with an increase in insulin demonstrates a what kind of relationship a negative relationship
the fluid mosiac model describes what the actions and archetechture of the phospholipid bilayer and the proteins embedded in it
membrane phospholipids are able to do what in the plasma membrane create a phospholipid bilayer
the cholesterol in animals cells is used for what for rigidity and storage
what drug would you suggest as a productive avenue for drug development one that inhibits the production of a negative protein
what can you conclude form the fact that certain anti-inflammatories prevent the natural reactions in the blood stream they inhibit enzymes they are not supposed to
know statements describing why a membrane is like a control center such as
what characteristic promoted lipids to become cell membranes the fact that they have water hating outsides and self attractant insides
the plasma membrane is similar in structure and function
small nonpolar hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids easily pass phospholipid bilayer
which of the following substances would have the hardest time crossing through a bilayer sodium
know statements about photo synthesis and cellular respiration
how do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration in atp
the processes that create energy are complimentary, during these energy conversions some energy is reused, lost
respiration is, and cellular respiration is the process of breathing, the process of creating atp
products of cellular respiration to make....... and ....... energy and store
statements regarding respiration that are false
the overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
know statements about energy yields such as there are 36 atp made but 4 disapear
humans use the calories they obtain form as a source of energy food
humans use about of their daily calories to maintain there brain cells and other life sustaining properties
a kilocalorie is a thousand calories
how many calories are actually in a serving of 200 calories
during cellular respiration the energy in glucose is carried by what nad+
in bio systems an important enzyme in redox reaction is acetyl coa
during cellular respiration nadh delivers its electrons to the electron transport chain
is what when it accepts electrons
what is the functioning of an electron transport chain like a slinky going down the stairs
list the stages of cell resp in order glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and ox phosphorylation
a drug that inhibits an enzyme will effect what cycle and what type of phosphorylation oxidative
during which cycle does substrate level phosphorylation occur krebs
which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anerobic resperation glycolysis
after glycolysis there are 2 atps
how many molecules of nadh are produced during glycolysis 2
Created by: Reginald L.