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Bio Exam 1

Anatomy= Structure
Physiology= Function
Gross Anatomy Large structures, body, study of cadavers
Microscopic Anatomy Smaller structures, can be seen only wth a microscope
Scientific Method: Seven Steps Observation, Hypothesis, Test it, Collect data, Analyze it, Make a conclusion, Start again
What is The Chemical level Atoms, molecules, complex shapes and their interactions
What is the Cellular level Smallest living unit in the body, organelles
What is the tissue level Many cells put together
What is the organ level Two or more tissues working together, perform a specific function
What is the Organ system level Two or more organs working together
What is the Organism level All organ systems working together, maintaining the life of a living thing
Homeostasis= Everything working together for the common good
What are the types of regulation? Autoregulation and Extrinsic regulation
What is auto regulation? cells, tissues, organs sense a disturbance and respond
What is Extrinsic regulation? a cell type detects disturbance, sends signal elsewhere in body
What are the three components of regulatory system? Receptor, Control center, Effector
What does the receptor do? sensitive to stimulus
What does the control center do? directs a response
What does the effector do? changes activity to carry out response
Negative feedback= response reduces or negates original signal
Positive feedback= response escalates or intensifies the original signal
What are X-rays oldest method, uses electromagnetic radiation to identify dense objects
Barium solution is? The liquid that must be swallowed in order to identify soft tissue
CAT scan Many x-ray images put together by a computer like a puzzle
MRI scan Huge magnet rotates around body, moving your atoms, then radio pulse, detecting the structures in your brain, and computer then assembles the image
PET scan detects radiation and computer reconstructs image, to detect brain activity, cancer, blood flow
Ultrasound High frequency sound waves bounce off different structures and go back to the receiver
Echogram = Image produced from and ultrasound
Chemistry = Study of matter "stuff"
Mass = amount of material in an object
Atom = one of the smallest units of matter
Atoms are made up of? protons (+), neutrons (0), electrons (-)
protons and electrons Most stable atoms have the same number of ____________
isotopes= When the number of neutrons vary
Molecule= atoms sharing electrons, joined together
Compound= broader, any atoms interacting
Ionic bonds = Interaction between two charged atoms
Covalent bonds= Sharing electrons, not taking them
Free radicals= atoms "steals" electron, instead of sharing, other one is hyperreactive
Non polar covalent bonds= both atoms "pull" equally
Polar covalent bonds= one atoms "pull" is stronger
Hydrogen bond= A relatively weak interaction between partially charged molecules
Hydrogen Hydrogen bonds most commonly involve ________
Water Hydrogen bonds gives _________ its properties
Metabolism= All chemical reactions going on inside of a cell
Catabolism = decomposition of complex molecules
Anabolism = Synthesizing large molecules in the cell
Decomposition reactions= Big molecules broken down into smaller ones
Hydrolysis Breaking down water molecules
Synthesis reactions Smaller molecules combining into a larger one
Activation energy Required to start a reaction
Enzymes Are catalysts; they get the reaction started
Solute Substance dissolved
Solvent Water
Solution Mixture of solute and solvent
Electrolytes Soluble inorganic compounds in your blood that carry a charge
partially Water is ___________ charged
Hydrophilic Some atoms ,charge,
Hydrophobic Other atoms,not charged, dissociate from the water
Buffering systems Weak acidic or basic compounds that absorb H+ or OH -,regulate your PH levels
Carbohydrates= sugars and starches; "one hexagon"
Simple carbohydrates= monosaccharides, simplest form, single carbohydrate unit, only 3-7 carbon atoms
ringform ______________ form monosaccharide is most common
Hyperglycemia Too much glucose
Hypoglycemia Too little glucose
What corrects the amount of glucose that the body has? What is released to correct this? Pancreas, insulin
Type 1 Diabetes= No insulin produced
Type 2 Diabetes= Insulin resistance
Disaccharides= Two sugar units
Polysaccharides= many sugar units
Glycogen= Animal starch
Lipids= fats, oils, steroids
What elements are lipids made up of? Carbon and Hydrogen and oxygen
Fatty acids = Long chains of carbon with a carboxyl group at "head"
What are the two types of lipids? Saturated and unsaturated
Saturated= maximum number of hydrogens
Saturated fats tend to be... solid
unsaturated= extra carbon bonds, causes "kinks" in chain
Unsaturated fats tend to be.... liquids
What is the most well-known fats? Omega - 3 fatty acids
Trans fat= Hydrogens added to unsaturated fats to make them saturated and solid
Triglycerides= fat storage for energy reserves as well as insulation; Has glycerol
Eicosanoids= lipids that are hormones
Leukotrienes= coordinate response to injury
Prostaglandis= inflammatory response to injury
Cholesterol= most common steroid, lipid in your cells that is created by your body and taken via food
Lipitor= best selling drug of all time. reduces blood cholesterol level
Cortisol= stress response
testosterone and estrogens help with? reproduction
Phospholipids and glycolipids = Structure of cells, makes up cell membrane
This takes up 20% of body weight, and is the most abundant organic molecule proteins
What are the elements that make up proteins? Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
What do proteins consist of? Amino acids
amino acids are linked by ? peptide bonds
peptide= `single long chain
polypeptide= multiple chains working together
What are the four levels of protein structure? Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, Quaternary structure
Primary structure= amino acids linked together
secondary strucutre= alpha helix; bonding between strands
Tertiary structure= three dimensional; bending and twisting
Quaternary structure= entire structure working together
Substrates= reactants bind to enzymes
Active site= location where reaction happens
products= after reaction
The building code of life? DNA and RNA
DNA and RNA are made up of what elements? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
DNA= double helix, sturdy, holds info
RNA= single helix, temporary and fragile, messenger and worker
ATP= "Energy currency of the cell"
number of phosphate in ATP? 3
Cell= smallest living unit in the body
cells come from? division of other cells
Sex cells= cells for reproduction
Do cells regulate their own homeostasis? yes
Somatic cells= Cells of the body
Plasma membrane= Physical isolation, structural support, sensitive to environmental change
Membranes are made up of ? Phospholipid bialye
True or false: hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic exterior true
Plasma membranes are full of ? Cholesterol
Glycocalyx= Carbohydrates on outside of membrane
Diffusion= particles move from where there is more, to where there is fewer
Osmosis Water movement
Cytoplasm= "stuff" inside the cell; fluid and structures
Cytosol= just the fluid; includes inclusions, or masses of lipids
Cytoskeleton= protein network of cell
Cytoskeletons have small __________, and big __________ filaments, microtubules
Cilia and Flagella= finger-like structures supported by cytoskeleton microfilaments
Why are cilia and filaments so important? They're used for movement of the cell
cilia= "beat" rhythmically to move particles across surface
Cilia are common where? In respiratory and digestive tracts
Flagella= bigger, longer structures, for fast cell movement; only found in sperm
Ribosomes= Protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)= convoluted, folded structure with its own membrane
Smooth ER= no ribosomes on surface, makes glycogen and lipids for liver cells
Rough ER= contain ribosomes; this is where proteins are made and packaged, transported to another organelle
Golgi Apparatus= "Fedex" center of the cell, they package proteins in to vesicles
Lysosomes= Vesicles in cytoplasm that break down, contain digestive enzymes to break down organelles
Mitochondria= Energy producing center of the cell
mitochondria makes and uses a lot of ? ATP
true or false : mitochondria has its own DNA and makes own proteins true
Nucleus Largest organelle, control center; DNA and RNA
In the nucleus DNA unwinds, enzymes ____________ RNA transcribe
In the nucleus RNA goes to ribosomes where it "reads" nucleotides and ___________ it to protein translates
Codon= corresponding amino acids for each set of three nucleotides
Cell division= two daughters form one parent
Apoptosis= Auto- destruction of cells on command
Tumor= mass or swelling of tissue by abnormal cell division
Benign tumor= cell division is restricted to epithelial or connective tissues, not as threatening , can be removed
Malignant tumore= does not respond to normal cues and spreads easily
Metastasis= malignant cells traveling long distances in the body
Oncogenes= mutations in genes that cause cancer
Mutagen= any agent that causes mutations in DNA
Carcinogen= Cancer-Causing agents
What tissue covers every exposed surface on the body? Epithelial
Gap Junctions= limit molecules that can pass through
Tight junctions= Free passage of molecules
Desmosomes= link cells together
The portion of the cell exposed to the cavity is called its _________ surface. apical
The rest of the cell make up the ___________ surface basolateral
What are the three main kinds of epithelial tissues? Squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
squamous= random shape and size
Cuboidal= squares
Columnar= rectangles
Endocrine glands= produce chemicals that affect things somewhere else in the body
Exocrine glands= have their own ducts and produce chemicals secreted outside of body
Pancreas= contains exocrine and endocrine glands
What are the four types of secretions? Apocrine, Holocrine, Nerocrine
Apocrine= no part of the cell is damaged from secretion
Holocrine= cell is destroyed from secretion
Nerocrine= parts of membrane are pinched off and are included in the secretion
What are the features of connective tissues? Many specialized cells, highly vascularized
Matrix= protein fibers + ground substance
Highly vascularized= lots of blood vessels
Connective tissue proper= loose or dense tissue, maple syrup like matrix
Fibroblasts= always present most common, make the matrix
Fibrocytes= second most common, maintain and repair
Adipocytes= fat cells, store energy
Mesenchymal= connective tissue stem cells, respond to injury
Macrophages= with blood cells, can be either resident or passing through, first line of defense, respond to infection
Phagocytes= Engulf pathogens using "mega-endocytosis"
Lymphocyte cells= highly mobile immune cells, respond to injuries,
Antihistamines are used for? cold and flu symptoms
Lymphocytes= highly mobile, migrate throughout the body, helps make antibodies tat tag specific molecules as "forgein"
Melanocytes= cells that make pigment, melanin, also in epithelial
Collagen fibers= long, straight , very common
Reticular fibers= thinner, branching network
Elastic fibers= special protein elastin, very stretchy
Loose connective tissue= proper is "packing material"
Areolar tissue= between skin and muscle, bendy
Adipose tissue= fat tissue
Dense fat= "good fat" , burns calories to generate heat, common in infants
Fluid connective tissue= watery matrix
Blood plasma= mostly characterized by blood without the red blood cells
Supporting connective tissue= Extremely dense, strong
Chondroitin sulfates= maintain elasticity and plasticity of joint cartilage
Condrocytes= One type of cell in cartilage
Lacunae= exist in their own chambers
Osteocytes= bone cells that are in lacunae
Canaliculi= Each one connected to blood via cytoplasmic extensions
Muscle tissue= function for contraction, which makes movement
Skeletal muscle= voluntary body movements , very large cells,
Cardiac muscle= very strong heart muscles, involuntary movements, 1-5 nuclei
joined by gap junctions and desmosomes Interconnected cells
pacemaker cells= start contraction signal with chemical cues
Smooth muscle= mostly internal involuntary movements, hollow organs walls and surfaces, 1 nucleus
Neural tissue= specialized tissue type that responds to stimuli and produces and electrical signal
neurons= use active transport at membrane to create electrical signal
Neuroglia= support neurons
Damaged cells release what that destroy other cells? necrosis
cells release ____________ to begin inflammation prostaglandins
if a tissue can't regenerate, ex. heart and cartilage replaced with ___________. fibrous tissues
Osteoporosis= condition of aging where skin gets thinner, bones become brittle
Skin takes up how much % of total body weight? 16
What are two major parts of the integumentary system? Cutaneous membrane and Accessory structure
What are all of the functions of integumentary system? Protection for underlying tissues Excretion Maintenance Production of keratin Synthesis of Vitamin D3 Fat storage Detection Coordination of immune system
Avascular= lack of blood vessels. nutrients and waste diffuse
What are the layers of the epidermis? Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum Spinsosum Stratum basale
keratinocytes= most abundant epithelia cell, begin at bottom and die as they move up
What attaches to the stratum basale on the basement membrane? Desmosomes
Epidermal ridges= Interlock together in ridges because of surface area
Fingerprints= determined by genetics(DNA) and environment
Once ______ _____ are in place, they divide but not move stem cells
basal cells= stem cells of stratum basal
When dividing, one cell is pushed up and differentiates into _____________. Keratinocyte
Stratum spinosum= spiny layer, a major location for the immune system
Granulosum= grainy layer
true or false: Cells stop dividing and flatten in the granulosum layer. true
Lucidum= light, clear layer
Where is lucidum found? only found in thick skin
Where do dead cells go? They get dehydrated
Stratum corneum= the horny outer layer of the skin.
Where are keratinized cells in the skin found? The top layer of cells - 15-30 deep of full keratinized cells
How long does it take to go from basae to corneum? 7-10 days
Psoriasis= is a chronic, common skin disorder
Inflammation of the skin and joints can be known as? Psoriatic arthritis
Why do we have so many layers to skin? For pertection
Stratum corner is __________________________ for microorganisms. dry and uninhabitable
Blisters= damaged areas between the superficial and deep layers of skin can result in fluid buildup
What are the two important pigments? Carotene Melanin
carotene= is found in corner layer cells (yellow-orange color)
Melanocytes= in stratum basale produce melanin (brownish)
Where are melanocytes found? between or deep in epidermal layers
Melanin= Modified amino acids
Does melanin ever break down? yes, gradually
Is there any difference between lighter skinned people and darker skinned people regarding protection of the skin? yes, In darker skinned people, projections go further, into the granulosum
Skin color difference are due to differences in ___________________________, not really melanocyte numbers. melanin transfer and persistence in skin
Albinism= deficiency or absence of melanin (genetic condition)
What are freckles? irregular spots of increased melanin
Why do we have freckles/ how do we get them? because of lots of sun exposure and UV radiation
What is the purpose of melanin? Protects against UV damage from sun
What is the role of melanin? to act as shade
How do sun tans appear? It comes from increased melanin production
Can UV damage become a a lasting result? yes
Malignant melanoma= basal cells that have DNA damage
Addison's disease= Pituitary gland produces too much/ little hormone, melanocytes responds
Uitiligo= loss of melanocytes, for various reasons
enzymes= proteins that speed up reactions
What are the blocks that DNA is made up of? nucleotides
Oxidative Phosphorylation= using enzymes to release energy to renew ATP
Phases of Mitosis= Prophase, Anaphase, Metaphase, Telephase
Two main types of epithelial tissues are? Epithelia, Glandular
Created by: Mbelcher21



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