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Biology Chapter 3.2

Carbohydrate Any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things.
Monosaccharide A simple sugar that is the basic subunit, or monomer, of a carbohydrate.
Disaccharide A sugar formed from two monosaccharides.
Polysaccharide A long chain of several amino acids.
Protein An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells.
Amino Acid An organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group and that makes up proteins; a protein monomer.
Peptide Bond The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid.
Polypeptide A long chain of several amino acids.
Enzyme A type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions in plant and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed.
Substrate A part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in the reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
Active Site The site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate.
Lipid A large, nonpolar organic molecule, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes.
Fatty Acid An organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils.
Phospholipid A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes.
Wax A type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain.
Steroid A type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action.
Nucleic Acid An organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides an carry genetic information.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) The material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
Nucleotide In a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
Created by: DragonT20