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BI107 Exam 1

what is science guided and explained by natural law, testable, tentative conclusions and falsifiable
what is an example of tentative conclusions? the doushanto fossils from the Cambrian period that were thought to be sulphur oxidizing bacteria, then eukaryotic then neither eukaryotic or bacteria and then eukaryotic
How did Darwin first begin to study nature? studied theology at Cambridge but wanted to be a naturalist so took a 5 year voyage on the Beagle and began to take notes
When did Darwin finally publish his findings? 1859, more than 20 years after done with it
What does Linnaeus contribute to evolution? the classification of animals by physical features. He thought that God created the creatures and that animals never went extinct.
What are the thoughts of Georges Cuvier? He believed in catastrophism, which meant that there was a world before theirs and it was destroyed by a catastrophe. He did not believe in evolution but did understand that organisms go extinct.
How old did Archbishop Ussher think earth was? 6000 years old
What did de Buffon think about Earth's age? He thought the earth broke off from the sun and was 70,000 years old.
What did Nicolas Steno learn about geological time? It could be recorded by old rock covered by new rock. He found fish fossils.
What did William Smith do? He was a Brit surveyor who created the first geological map by using fossil findings.
Who is James Hutton and what were his findings? He was the father of geology and say that a 8 m sequence took 8000 years to form, thus that would be enough time for evolution. He said "there is no vestige of beginning, no prospect of an end"
Who is Charles Lylle? He believed in Uniformitarianism which says that the same slow forces that shape the earth, are still operating.
Who is Jean Baptise-Lamarck and what are his theories? He believed in the inheritance of acquired characteristics with the famous example of the giraffe.
Who is Alfred Wallace? He outlined the ideas of evolution at the same time as Darwin and prompted him to finally publish his papers. He is named the father of biogeography.
Who is Thomas Malthus? He wrote an essay on the human population, creating the Malthusian Growth Principle that says that when the population is too large, some will die out with the assumption that food production was linear. He inspired the theory of nat. selection.
What was Darwin's original idea? That macroevolution follows microevolution.
How did Darwin see species lineage? He saw it as macroevolution, single origin with diversification and extinction.
How did Darwin view inheritance? everything just blended
What were Darwin's 5 facts? All species have great potential fertility, Populations normally display stability, in a stable environment resources are limited and remain constant, Pops display enormous variability, much of this variation is heritable
What were Darwin's 3 inferences? there is a fierce struggle for existence, survival is driven by natural selection, over generations the natural selection will lead to evolution
How does one measure population growth? population size/time
What is phenotypic plasticity? When organisms can change what they look like based on the environmental conditions
what is an example of heritable variation? Asian lady beetles
What are the sources of genetic variation? new alleles, gene duplication, exon shuffling, horizontal gene shuffling
What is modularity? expression of developmental control genes in different amounts at different times and different locations in the developing embryo
Define the 3 types of modularity. Heterometry-the difference in the amount of gene product (Darwin's finches) Heterochrony- the difference in timing of gene expression (giraffes) Heterotropy- the difference in spatial expression
What evidence is there for macroevolution? the fossil record, molecular record, homologous traits, parallel adaptations, patterns of distribution
What does a fossil record do? documents the course of life
What is the key piece of evidence in fossil records? intermediates
How does the molecular record provide evidence for evolution? the longer they are farther apart, the more differences in the DNA
What occurs in the molecular record? There are mutations, duplications and general errors in copying, which makes evolution possible. We can figure out evolutionary divergence.
Why do humans have 23 instead of 24 chromosomes? Their second chromosome is a combination of two great ape chromosome
What is an example of gene duplication? Color vision
What are the different homologous traits? Genetic, Developmental and Vestigial Structures
Why do animals have homologous traits? due to common descent
What is an example of homologous structures? the arm and fin of a human and whale, number of vertebrae bw mouse and chick
What is homoplasy? Similar structures due to convergent evolution. Wings of bats and birds.
What does developmental homology usually refer to? embryos
What are hox genes? genes that code for transcription factors
What does a mutation need to create variation? duplication of genes, chromosomes or whole genomes
What is evo devo? reshuffling of genetic toolkit to create diversity.
What is an example of a vestigial structure? Human coccyx
What does convergent evolution lead to? analogous traits
What do allele frequencies show? the amount of genetic variation
What do genotype frequencies show? how the genetic variation is distributed
What happens to allele frequencies in HW? they do not change
What is fitness? reproductive success+survival
Which goat shows heterozygote advantage? The heterozygote with medium horns
What happens to the heterozygote in inbreeding? Its frequency decreases by 50% and a fourth of it goes to each homo
Does interbreeding lead to evolutionary change? no because allele frequencies do not change
What is inbreeding depression? a decline in average fitness that takes place when homozygosity increases and heterozygosity decreases
What are the evolutionary mechanisms that alter existing gene frequencies? natural selection, random genetic drift, migration or gene flow, mutation
What is genetic drift usually followed by? natural selection
What does gene flow do to genetic differences? reduces them
What occurs in genetic drift? individuals are isolated from parent population. it is key to the beginning of macroevolution.
What does genetic drift usually lead to? homozygosity
What is an example of the founder effect? anole lizards
What are the three types of natural selection? directional, diversifying/disruptive, stabilizing
What is an example of directional selection? increase in horse body size
What is an example in diversifying selection? finches with different beak sizes
What is an example of stabilizing selection? oystercatcher birds
What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection? The human hand, it has a stated purpose.
What are some examples of artificially selected agricoles? wheat, rice, maize
what is the definition of an adaptation? when an individual w/in a pop. acquires characteristics that improve reproductive success, which contributes to fitness and survival
What is the definition of natural selection? the differential survival and reproduction of individuals
what is the most objective taxon? species because most people can agree on it
What are birds actually? reptiles
What are the 3 species concepts? Morphological, Biological and Phylogenetic/DNA
What is the biological species concept? groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups
What is the lineage species concept? species are a branch from the tree of life, they have genetic similarities
What causes cladogenesis? vicariance and genetic drift
what is an example of vicariance? tigers, large flightless birds
what is the theoretical framework of speciation? gene drift because of changes in gene pool. Natural selection because adaptations to new environment. Character displacement. Mutations.
What is allopatric speciation? When species are geographically isolated and thus diverge into two different species
What is sympatric speciation? It usually consists of adapting to reduce competition, a small population forms a new species in midst of the parent population.
Outcomes of secondary population contact: fusion of the populations, reinforcement of divergence, hybrid zone formation, extinction of a population, creation of new species from hybrid offspring
What is the Dobhansky-Muller model? a single ancestral population is divided into two and evolve independently because new alleles become fixed at different loci and they are incompatible.
What is a centric fusion? chromosomes can't pair normally because they are so genetically different
What can cause phenotypic divergence? negative interactions between closely related species
What is adaptive radiation? evolution of ecology and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage
What is polyploidy? Two genomes in one individual
What is autoploidy? polyploidy from the same species
What is alloploidy? polyploidy from different species
What are the different kinds of prezygotic isolating mechanisms? temporal, habitat, behavioral, gametic barrier, mechanical
What are the different postzygotic isolating mechanisms? hybrid sterility, hybrid viability
Created by: VaLeRiA!



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