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biology chapter 4, r

flashcards for questions and concepts on chapter four

light microscope a machine where visible light is passed through a specimen and onto a lense that magnifies the object to a max of a few thousand times the original size
cell theory all living things are composed of cells and cells come from other cells
electron microscope a machine that sends a beam of electrons through an object or onto its surface
scanning electron microscope a machine that scans the surface of an object to observe the detailed structure of it
transmission electron microscopes a machine that emits electron beams into an object to give us insight into its internal structure (cell structure, atom structure)
what kind of microscope would you use to; (A). see the changes in shape of a living human white blood cell (B). the surface of a human hair (C). the detailed structure of an organelle in a liver cell (a). light microscope (b). sem (c). tem
surface to volume ratio the amount of surface area to the volume of an object
plasma membrane the phospholipid bilayer between the cytoplasm and the outside of the cell
prokaryotic cells simple cells with no nucleus or complex strucutre
eukaryotic cells larger cells with a more complex inner structure
cytosol the nutrient rich fluid inside a cell in which organelles are suspended
chromosomes a set of genes created and passed on by your parents with a specific set of genetic instructions on how your body should run
ribosomes small structures that make molecules based on genetic info
cytoplasm cytoplasm is the term used to describe the inside of the cell
nucleoid the nucleus like area containing DNA in prokaryotic cells
flagella a long motor protein protruding from a cell that flings the cell forward in a whiplike motion
organelles components of the inner cell used to help the body and cell function
cellular metabolism collective amount of chemical reactions produced by a cell at any given time
nucleus the area of the cell dedicated to cell operations and DNA management
chromatin a mass of DNA in different strucures
nuclear envelope a double layer phospholipid membrane that encloses the nucleus
nucleolus the primary structure in the nucleus used to house the DNA
endomembrane system the sytem of reactions and cycles within a cell that leends to the cells operations and body functionality
vesicles small sacs of membrane containing molecules
endoplasmic reticulum the large net of molecules that houses ribosomes next to the nucleus, can be smooth or rough
smooth lacks attached ribosomes
rough bound ribosomes
glycoprotein a polypeptide or protein formed from several sugars
transport vesicle a vesicle used to transport a molecule or portion of an organelle to another part of the cell or other cell completely
golgi apparatus a long curly organelle that changes proteins from the er to a more refined version
lysosome a lysosome is a vesicle filled with digestive enzymes used to dissolve food, an un functional cell, or an old cell component
peroxisomes peroxisomes are metabolic compartments that do not originate from the endomembrane system and are used to change fatty acids and harmful compounds
mitochondria cells that carry out cellular respiration and the process of creating atp
mitochondrial matrix the area inside of the mitochondrion, containing DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
christae the several folds inside the mitochondrial matrix used to increase surface area
chloroplasts organelles inside of the plant cell that carry out photosynthesis, similar to how mitochondria carry out cellular respiration
stroma the thick fluid inside of plant cells similar to cytosol, containing enzymes and dna and ribosomes
thylakoids interconnected sacs filled with nutrients
granum towers of interconnected sacs that store thylakoids
endosymbiont theory the theory created by the idea that chloroplasts and mitochondria existed as a simple from of cells prior to being absorbed or consumed by another cell
cytoskeleton a complex network of fibers on the inside of the cell resposnible for keeping the cells structure and moving the cell
microtubules hollow tubes of globular proteins used to propel the cell and give it proper shape, they extend from a portion of the nucleus called the centrosome,
intermediate filaments a long cord like fiber that supports the membrane strucuture, and helps secure some organelles
microfilament fibers made of twisted double chains of actin, a motor protein
extracellular matrix a series of proteins and polysacharides used to protect connect and support cells
integrins proteins that bind the ecm to the cell
cell wall the rigid membrane unique to plants that gives them their rigid structure
junctions gap, anchoring, tight
tight prevent leakage across membranes
gap allow proteins and small molecules to be transported
anchoring combine cells into tissues
plasmodesmata junctions in plant cells
know statements about cells like all cells have cell walls and internal sturcures that move
how do light microscopes work light microscopes use light and glass lenses to magnify an image
how many millimeters are in a centimeter 10
resolution is the ability to differentiate between two objects that are close together
what instrument would a scientist use to determine how the cells use tiny hairs to move dirt and mucus away from lungs a sem
cell theory all living things are composed of or are cells
what instrument would a scientist use to magnify pollen 8000 time sem
difference between sem and tem transmission for archetechtures canning for surface
diameter of plant and animal cells between 10 and 100 micrometers
as cell size increases the surface area increases at a slower rate
what cells have the greatest surface to volume ratio long flat ones
what is a solution that makes a cell larger hypotonic
how would you maximize how long a cough drop lasted in your mouth by eating it whole minimizing the parts in contact with the tongue, being dissolved
if a pathologist is trying to examine the structure of a patients liver cells, what machine would he use tem
Created by: Reginald L.



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