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3.2 Terms

TermDefinition
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom. the number of carbons very
monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate (simple sugar)
disaccharide (double sugar) two monosaccharides combined in a condensation reaction to form this
polysaccharide a complex molecule compose of three or more monosaccharides
protein organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
amino acid the linkage of monomers
peptide bond a condensation reaction where two amino acids form a covalent bond and release a water molecule
polypeptide very long chains formed from amino acids
enzyme RNA or protein molecules that act as a biological catalyst
substrate the reactant being catalyzed
active site folds in an enzyme with a shape that allows the substrate to fit
lipid large nonpolar molecules that do not dissolve in water
fatty acid unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
phospholipid has two fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid molecules that are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
nucleic acid very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activity
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide thousands of linked monomers. made of three main components; a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: Addaleigh