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Biology Chapter 3-2

TermDefinition
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to on oxygen atom
monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate. A simple Sugar. Contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.
disaccharide When two monosaccharides combine to create a double sugar.
polysaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.
protein organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and oxygen. Formed from amino acids.
amino acid The linkage of monomers
peptide bond When two amino acids form a covalent bond.
polypeptide When amino acids form long chains they make____. Proteins are made up of these.
enzyme RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts.
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance or element. The reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
active site the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
lipid a large non polar organic molecule including fats and steroids, they store energy and make up cell membranes.
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids such as fats or oils.
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorous and that is a structural component in cell membranes
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain.
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings of which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action.
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.
ribonucleic acid a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
nucleotide in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar , a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
Created by: faithcayia