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chapter 2 and three

3.o terms

organic compound made primarily of carbon atoms
functional group clusters of atom in an organic compound
monomer carbon compounds built up from smaller molecules
polymer a molecule that consists of repeated, linked units
macromolecule large polymers
condensation reaction monomers link to form polymers
hydrolysis water is used to break down a polymer
adenosine triphosphate energy available to cells that stores a large amount of energy
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate
disaccharide two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar
polysacharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
protein organic compounds mainly of carbon
amino acid form proteins from the linkage of monomers
peptide bond two amino acids form a covalent bond
polypeptide amino acids that create a long chain
enzyme RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalyzed
substrate the reactant being catalyzed
active site an enzymes folds
lipid large, non-popular organic molecules
fatty acid unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
phospholipid have two, rather than three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
nucleic acid very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains information that determines the chararistics of an organism and directs its cell activities
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and tranfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a ring shaped nitrogenous base
functional group two or three atoms at either end of an organic molecule, influence the chararistics of the molecules they form.
single bond C2H6
covalent bond strongest bond, two elements share one or moreouter elctrons, example is H2O
copounds two or more elements, chemical bonds formed or broken to change them-requires chemical change to form them
single bond shares 2 electrons, strong
hydrolysis adding water to something to break it apart
empirical formula kinds and number of each atom
triple bond 6 electrons are shared, very strong bond
double bond C2H4
how many bonds can hydrogen have? 1
double bond 4 electrons are shared, strong bond
triple bond C2H2
structural formula kinds of atoms, shape of molecule and bonds
acid range 1-6
how many bonds can carbon have? 4
cohesion water attches to itself
hydrogen bonding weakest of bonds, most common, partially positive attracts a negative atom from another molecule
base range 8-14
how many bonds can nitrogen have? 3
capallarity waters ability to move up a narrow tube
carbon element 4 electrons, wants four more so it forms 4 covalent bonds
carbohydtates molecules made from glucose, primary energy source, sugar, glucose
how many bonds can oxygen have? 2
adhesion water attaches to other surfaces
ionic bond held by attraction between oppisitely charged ions
proteins chains of amino acids, enzymes and hormones
lipids very long chains of fatty acids, waxes, oils and liquids
nucleic acids chains of nucleotides in a spiral, nucleotide, genetic info, DNA and RNA
glucose C6 H1 06



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