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Theory Unit V

Nursing Level I Theory Test #2

QuestionAnswer
Maslow's Physiological Needs 1st level. Crucial for survival : air, food, water, shelter, rest, sleep, activity, temperature maintenance.
Maslow's Safety and Security Needs 2nd level. Physiological and Physical aspects. The person needs to feel safe in the physical environment and in relationships.
Maslow's Love and Belonging Needs 3rd level. Giving and receiving affection, attaining a place in a group, and maintaining the feeling of belonging.
Maslow's Self-Esteem Needs 4th level. Need for self-esteem: independence, competence, self-respect. Need for esteem from others: recognition, respect, appreciation.
Maslow's Actualization Needs 5th level. Highest level. After all other levels are met an individual has an innate need to develop one's maximum potential and realize one's abilities and qualities.
Cephalocaudal growth occurs in which direction? From the head down.
Proximodistal growth occurs in which direction? From the center of the body out.
Growth Physical change that increase in size and can be measured quantitatively, such as height and weight.
Development Increase in the complexity of function and skill progression.
Growth and Development Principle Definition Continuous, orderly, sequential processes influenced by maturational, environmental, and genetic factors.
Erik H. Erikson (1902-1994) People continue to develop throughout life. 8 stages of development.
Trust vs Mistrust Erikson. Birth to 18 months. Primary care giver meets the needs of food, shelter, and personal care.
Autonomy vs Shame and Guilt Erikson. 18 months to 3 years. Development of controlling bodily functions.
Initiative vs Guilt Erikson. 3 to 5 years. Assertiveness and behavioral awareness. If unsuccessful the child will have decreased self-confidence and a feeling of fear.
Industry vs Inferiority Erikson. 6-12 years. Success indicates the child's ability to create. Negative response is withdrawal and a sense of hopelessness.
Intimacy vs Isolation Erikson. Adolescents 12 - 20 years. Exploring relationships and work experience. Negative response would be avoidance of career or relationship.
Generativity vs Stagnation Erikson. Adulthood 25 - 65 years. Creativity and development of other interests.
Integrity vs Despair Erikson. 65 years to death. Individuals accept their life and their ultimate death.
Robert Peck (1968) Physical capabilities and functions decrease with old age, but mental and social capacities tend to increase in the latter part of life. 3 Developmental Tasks during old age.
Ego Differentiation vs Work-Role Preoccupation Peck. An adult's identity and feelings of worth are highly dependent on that person's work role. Upon retirement that role may need to be replaced by a number of other roles (Golf or gardening) for self-esteem.
Body Transcendence vs Body Preoccupation Peck. Individuals must adjust to decreasing physical capabilities while maintaining a feeling of well-being.
Ego Transcendence vs Ego Preoccupation Peck. Acceptance without fear of one's death as inevitable vs holding on to life with a need for self-gratification.
Robert Havighurst (1900-1991) 6 stages - 6 to 10 task each. Learning is basic to life and people continue learning throughout life.
Havighurst Infancy and Early Childhood Tasks 1.Walk 2.Eat 3.Talk 4.Toilet Training 5.Sexual Differences/Modesty 6.Psychological Stability 7.Concept of Social and Physical Reality 8.Emotional Relations 9.Right from Wrong/Conscience
Havighurst Middle Childhood Tasks 1.Ordinary Skills 2.Wholesome Self Attitude 3.Get Along with Age-Mates 4.Masculine/Feminine Roles 5.Fundamental Skills 6.Everyday Living Concepts 7.Conscience/Morals/Values 8.Personal Independence 9.Opinions/Attitudes
Havighurst Adolescence Tasks 1.Mature Relations 2.Masculine/Feminine Roles 3.Accepting Physique 4.Emotional Independence 5.Economic Independence 6.Prepare for Occupation/Marriage/Family 7.Intellectual Skills 8.Behavior 9.Values/Ethics
Havighurst Early Adulthood Tasks 1.Mate 2.Live with Partner 3.Family 4.Children 5.Manage a Home 6.Start Occupation 7.Civic Responsibility 8.Congenial Social Group
Havighurst Middle Age Tasks 1.Civic/Social Responsibility 2.Economic Standards 3.Assisting Teenage Children 4.Adult Leisure Time 5.Relating to Spouse as a Person 6.Accepting/Adjusting to Physiological Change 7.Aging Parents
Havighurst Maturity Tasks 1.Adjusting to Physical Strength/Health 2.Adjusting to Retirement/Income 3.Adjusting to Death of Spouse 4.Affiliation with Age Group 5.Social/Civic Responsibility 6.Physical Living Arrangements
Roger Gould Studied Adult Development. 7 Stages beginning with age 16.
Gould Stage 1 (ages 16-18) Individuals consider themselves part of the family rather than individuals and want to separate from their parents.
Gould Stage 2 (ages 18-22) Although the individual has established autonomy, they feel it is in jeopardy; they feel they could be pulled back into their families.
Gould Stage 3 (ages 22-28) Individuals feel established as adults and autonomous from families. Feel well-defined, but still want to prove themselves to parents. Time for growing and building the future.
Gould Stage 4 (age 28-34) Marriage and career are well established. Question what life is about. No longer feel the need to prove themselves.
Gould Stage 5 (ages 34-43) Period of self-reflection. Question values and life. See time as finite, with little time left to shape lives of adolescent children.
Gould Stage 6 (ages 43-50) Personalities are seen as set. Time is accepted as finite. Interests in social activities with friends and spouse. Desire sympathy and affection from spouse.
Gould Stage 7 (ages 50-60) Period of transformation. Realization of mortality and concern for health. Increase in warmth and a decrease in negativism. Spouse is seen as valuable.
Cognitive Development Theory Manner in which people learn to think, reason, and use language and other symbols.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Most widely known cognitive theorist. 5 major phases.
Piaget's Theory Cognitive development is an orderly, sequential process in which a variety of new experiences must exist before intellectual abilities can develop .
Piaget's 5 Major Phases Sensorimotor phase, preconceptual phase, Intuitive thought phase, concrete operations phase, formal operations phase.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) Specifically addresses moral development in children and adults. 3 Levels and 6 stages.
Moral Relating to right and wrong
Morality Requirements necessary for people to live together in society
Moral Behavior The way a person perceives the requirements necessary for people to live together in society and how they respond to them.
Moral Development Pattern of change in moral behavior with age.
Kohlberg's Preconventional Level Responding to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right and wrong. Punishment or reward.
Kohlberg's Conventional Level Conformity and loyalty to one's own expectations as well as society's. Concerns about maintaining the expectations of the family, group, or nation and sees this as right.
Kohlberg's Postconventional Level People make an effort to define valid values and principles without regard to outside authority or to the expectation of others.
James Fowler Describes faith as a force that gives meaning to a persons life.
Fowler's Paradoxical-Consolidative Phase Occurs after 30 years of age with awareness of truth from many different view points.
Fowler's Universalizing Phase An individual may never reach this stage. The individual expresses the principles of love and justice in their life.
Middle-Aged Adult Physical Change in Appearance Hair: thin/grey Skin: decreased turgor/moisture/subQ fat, and wrinkling. Fatty tissue redistributed=fat in abdominal area
Middle-Aged Adult Physical Change in Musculoskeletal System Muscle bulk decreases at 60. Thinning intervertebral disks=decrease in height. Calcium lose in bone tissue.
Middle-Aged Adult Physical Change in Cardiovascular System Blood vessels lose elasticity and become thicker.
Middle-Aged Adult Physical Change in Sensory Perception Visual acuity declines by late 40's. Auditory acuity for high-frequency sounds declines.
Middle-Aged Adult Physical Change in Metabolism Slows, and may result in weight gain.
Middle-Aged Adult Physical Change in Gastrointestinal System Gradual decrease in large intestine tone and may cause constipation.
Middle-Ages Adult Physical Change in Urinary System Nephron units are lost, and glomerular filtration rate decreases.
Middle-Aged Adult Physical Change in Sexuality Hormonal changes take place.
Created by: Jnford15