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Bio Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Vocab

TermDefinition
Selective Permeability allows some substances to cross the plasma membrane more easily than others
amphipathic contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
fluid mosaic model a membrane is a fluid structure with a mosaic of various proteins embedded in it
effect of cholesterol on membrane at a warm temperature retrains movement of phospholipids
effect of cholesterol on membrane at a cool temperature maintains fluidity by preventing tight packing
Gap Junction a passage between membranes in animal cells
Plasmadesmada channels that perforate plant cell walls
Tight Junction prevents fluid from moving across a layer of cells in animals
The major functions of membrane proteins transport, enzyme activity, signal transduction pathway, cell to cell recognition, intercellular joining, attachment to cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix
carbs role in cell to cell recognition they recognize each other by binding to molecules on the extracellular matrix of the plasma membrane
transport proteins allow passage of hydrophilic substances across a membrane
channel proteins hydrophilic channel that certain molecules use as a tunnel
Aquaporins facilitate passage of water across membrane
Carrier proteins bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across membrane
Diffusion tendency for molecules to spread out evenly into the available space
Dynamic Equilibrium molecules cross in both directions until equal
Concentration gradient region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases (passive transport)
Osmosis diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from low solute concentration to high solute concentration
Tonicity ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
Isotonic solution the solute concentration is the same inside and outside the cell, no net water movement
Hypertonic the solute concentration is greater inside the cell than outside, cell loses water
Hypotonic solute concentration is less inside the cell than outside, cell gains water
Turgid plant cell in hypotonic solution swells until walls oppose uptake
Flaccid plant cell is isotonic with surroundings, no net movement of water (becomes limp)
Plasmolysis hypertonic environment, membrane pulls away from cell wall causing plant to wilt
Osmoregulation control of solute concentration and water balance, is a necessary adaptation for life in water environments
Facilitated Diffusion transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across plasma membrane
Active transport moves substances against concentration gradient, requires ATP
membrane potential the voltage difference across a membrane created by differences in the distribution of ions across a membrane
Electrochemical Gradient drive diffusion of ions across a membrane by chemical and electrical force
chemical force effect of ions concentration gradient on electrochemical gradient
electrical force effect of membrane potential on ion movement in electrochemical gradient
Electrogenic pump transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane, helps store energy for cellular work
Cotransport occurs when active transport of a solute indirectly drives transport of other substances
Exocytosis transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with it, and release their contents outside the cell
Endocytosis cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane
Phagocytosis cellular eating, food taken in and then bind to lysosome to digest
Pinocytosis cellular drinking, extracellular fluid with droplets enter cell in tiny vesicles
Receptor-mediated endocytosis binding of ligands to receptors trigger vesicle formation
ligand any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
Created by: 1445396362142503