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HA Exam #3

Chest&Lungs, Heart&Blood Vesesls, Breasts

Kussmaul rapid, deep & labored breathing
Cheyne-Strokes varying period of increasing depth of breathing interspersed with apnea
Ataxic breathing significant disorganization with irregular/varying depths of respirations
PND (paroysmal Nocturnal Dypsnea) suddenly wakes at night with shortness of breath, cant lie down and breathe
Biot's irregularly interspersed period of apnea with disorganized sequences (seen at end of life stage)
Stridor high pitched wheezing or gasping sound with airway obstruction (audible without stethoscope)
Barrel Chest chest has a AP:L ratio of 1:1
Normal chest ration AP:L 1:2
Tactile Fremitus normal vibration of chest wall. Have pt repeat "99"...decreased or absent in patients with COPD or pleural infusion
Percussion sound = Dull percussion sound means fluid or solid filled (pneumonia or tumor)
Percussion sound = Hyperressonance percussion sound means air filled or over inflated such as emphysema or asthma
Crackles fine or coarse sounds heard low and does not clear with coughing
Rhonchi snorous wheeze and low coarse sounds that clear with coughing
Bronchophony fluid filled lungs, there is greater clarity when listening to patient say "99"...words are easily understood when listening to lung sounds
Wheezes musical sounding, loud through expiration
Friction Rub dry, grating sounds which is indicative of pleural lining rubbing against wall of chest
Egophony increased nasal quality. E's become stuffy A's which indicates consolidation
Consolidation lungs filled with fluid
Whispered Petroiloquy if bronchophony is extreme even whispers are heard
breath odor sweet/fruity sign of diabetes or starvation
breath odor is fishy/ammonia sign of uremia/renal problems
Atrioventricular Valves (AV valves) Tricuspid and Mitral Valves
Semilunar Valves (SL valves) Pulmonary and Aortic Valves
S1 closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves
S2 closure of pulmonary and aortic valves
S3 early diastole (SLOSHING-IN) S1,S2,S3
S4 late diastole (A-STIFT-WALL) S4,S1,S2
Thrills palpabale vibrations, purring of the car (defect in the SL valves)
Lift/Heaves can feel tap/thrust against your hand
S1 heard loudest here heard loudest at apex of heart
S2 heard loudest here heard loudest at base of heart
Grade of Heart Mumur 1 heart sounds barely audible
Grade of Heart Mumur 2 heart sounds quiet but clearly audible
Grade of Heart Mumur 3 heart sounds moderately loud but NO thrill or thrust
Grade of Heart Mumur 4 heart sounds moderately loud WITH thrill or thrust
Grade of Heart Mumur 5 heart sounds very loud with thrust or thrill
Grade of Heart Mumur 6 heart sounds very loud, no stethoscope needed, VISIBLE thrust or thrill
gynecomastia enlargement of breast tissue and almost always subsides in 1-2 years
Peau d' orange orange peel effect, in advanced carcinoma. skin appears thickened with large pores
dimpling of breast can indicate carcinoma
Paget's disease intraductal carcinnoma, scaling crusts at the nipple in early stages, nipple may become reddened excoriated or crusted
Mastitis infalmmation ofthe breast tissue; red, swollen, tender, hot and hard
5 D's of Nipple Abnormalities Discharge, Depression, Discoloration, Dermatological, Deviation
Created by: kaylynnfain