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201 Exam 2

Bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, biological considerations

Serotonin Regulates mood, anxiety, and appetite.
Dopamine Regulates energy, reward, motivation, mood, and attention
Norepinephrine Regulates mood, alertness, concentration, and energy.
GABA Regulates anxiety and sleep.
Glutamine Regulates memory and learning
Acetylcholine Regulates memory and attentiveness
Akathesia, Akinesia, oculogyric crisis, dystonia, TD tardive dyskinesia, pseudoparkinsonism Extrapyramidal symptoms
Ataxia Generalized disturbance of muscle coordination
Choreoatheotic movements Involuntary wave-like movements of the extremities.
Depression results from a deficiency of neuronal and synaptic catecholamines--primarily norepinephrine biogenic amine hypothesis
The reduced concentration of serotonin is the predisposing factor in patients with affective disorders. Derpession=decreases in both seratonin and catecholamine. Mania=increased dopamine and norepinephrine & decreased serotonin Permissive hypothesis (lead to the creation of SSRIs)
High fever, unstable BP, myoglobinemia. Slow, steady increase of temperature and spikes of BP, +20 mmHg in some cases. s/s neuroleptic malignant syndrome. May be caused by antipsychotics.
Discontinue antipsychotic therapy and administer benztropine (Cogentin), trihexyphenidyl (Artane), or benedryl Treatment for NMS
Involuntary motor symptoms similar to those associated with Parkinson's disease; also known as pseudoparkinsonism. Extrapyrimidal symptoms. May be caused by antipsychotics, especially with long-term use.
Akathisia Distressing motor restlessness characterized by feelings of weakness and muscle fatigue
Dystonia Painful muscle spasms manifested by torticollis and rolling back of the eyes
Involuntary contractions of oral and facial muscles and choreoathetosis Tardive dyskinesia
Psuedoparkinsonism A side effect of antipsychotic drugs characterized by mask-like facies, pill rolling tremors, muscle rigidity
Tardive dyskinesia manifested by lip smacking, wormlike movement of the tongue
Created by: spartansith11