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POST TEST VOCAB

important vocab for quarter 1

TermDefinition
core The layer found at the center of the Earth.
crust outermost solid layer of the Earth
asthenosphere Interior layer of the Earth that consists of of a portion of the upper mantle. This layer is hot, weak and partially melted
Mantle "middle' layer of the Earth, The largest layer between the crust and outer core. The lithosphere and asthenosphoere is located here.
Lithosphere Interior layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and upper portion of the mantle
igneous rock Rocks formed from molten material.
metamorphic rock Rocks that are changed by heat and pressure
sedimentary rock Rocks formed when fragments are cemented together
minerals are naturally occurring. inorganic , solids, definite chemical composition, ordered atomic arrangement
convection current located in the asthenosphere. circular motion that happens when warmer air or liquid rises while coller air or liquid sinks. Is the Driving force behind mid-ocean ridge.
seafloor spreading process in which new ocean floor is created as molten material from the Earth's mantle rises in margins between plates or ridges and spreads out
divergent boundarys when 2 plates move away from each other driven by convection currents..
mid oceanic ridge long mountain ranges located on the ocean floor where two plates move away from each other and new molten rock is added to the ocean floor.
convergent boundary occurs when two tectonic plates move toward one another and collide. Mountain chains can occur at this point due to neither plate giving in. It will crumple and push up mountain ranges.
transform fault Also known as a Strike-Slip Fault; occurs when two tectonic plates slide past each other. An earthquake is typically the result of these two plates moving.
volcano opening in the earth's crust that allows magma to flow out as lava and form structures. These structures can create islands in the oceans.
earthquakes sudden ground movement caused by the sudden release of energy stored in rocks. Most earthquake occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates in the crust. Occurs from a transform fault
plate tectonics rigid plates that move approx 5 cm per year.Continental drift and seafloor spreading support the theory. Movement of the plates are caused by convection currents. Theory supported by finding Same fossils found on continents such as Africa and S, America
runoff the draining away of water (or substances such as heavy metals or sand particles) from the surface of an area of land. This can carry these substances to water sources or other parts of land.
deposition the process of depositing a load that can shape the surface of the Earth. This is responsible for producing delta's.
delta formed when a river flows into a larger body of water (lake or ocean). since the velocity of the river slows drastically when it meets a larger body of water, the sediments are deposited.
soil erosion prevention planting vegetation in areas with high erosion will strengthen and stabilize the soil to help reduce erosion. Planting trees, grasses and other plants with a root system will accomplish this.
dome mountains formed where a region of flat-lying sedimentary rocks is warped or bowed upward making a structural dome
fault-block mountain Fractures in the Earth’s surface, result in formation of fault-block mountains. If there are two parallel faults, the crustal block between them may either rise to produce a horst-block mountain or fall to produce a rift valley
volcanic mountain Overlapping lava flows and layers of consolidated volcanic dust, called tuff, are responsible for the formation of_________ mountain
glaciers large mass of ice and snow that forms on land and moves in response to gravity.
Glacier erosion ________ erosion will grind the earth beneath it and carve out the underlying valley floor and walls. This will cause sharp mountain tops to turn into rolling hills or creating v-shaped valleys as they move through areas.
mudflow mudflows are the movement of water and suspended clays and silts. They can travel up to 80 kilometers per hour downhill
slump occurs on steep hillsides, and often shows a spoon-shaped depression, within which the material has begun to slide downhill. Some slumps are caused by water beneath the slope, weakening it.
creep imperceptibly slow movement of Earth materials downslope. generally occurs when the soil contains some water, causes man-made objects like fences, posts, and other structures to lean downhill.
landslides down-slope movement of rock or sediment, typically occur on steep slopes. They are most commonly triggered by ground movements caused by seismic activity.
weathering The breakdown of rock sediments through direct or indirect exposure to the atmosphere. This can be a chemical or mechanical process.
Created by: amber.dursik