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Biology Test #1

Atoms smallest observable unit of matter in a RXN.
CHNOPS Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphate, Sulfur
Chemical Bonds hold atoms together in a molecule/compound
Ionic Bonds Positive/negative atoms attract and link together Separate in water (electrolytes/minerals living things need)
Covalent Bonds Share electrons, Protons same on both atoms, electrons equal protons with some shared
Molecule/Compound Consists of 2 or more atoms held together by a form of a chemical bond
Ions Any atom or molecule that has a charge (+/-) (when atoms gain or lose electrons they become ions)
Polarity opposite ends have opposite charges (form H bonds with water) sometimes happens in a covalent bond where electrons are not shared equally making one side more charged causing polarity
Non-polar Don't form H bonds with water dissolve poorlu
Solubility Ability of solute to dissolve in solvent
solute dissolves into solvent
solvent liquid in which solute dissolves in
Polar molecules Love Water (Hydrophilic)
Hydrophilic Love water dissolve easily
Hydrophobic Water fearing dissolve poorly
Chemical RXN's Making and breaking of bonds Can be reversed in biology so pay attn to arrow reactants left products right
Organic Contains Carbon and Hydrogen atoms
Inorganic molecules Dont contain Carbon and Hydrogen atoms
Polymer Large organic molecule made by monomers linking together.
Making/Breaking Polymers Making polymer = dehydration or condensation rxn Breaking polymer = Hydrolysis RXN
Carbohydrates Contain Carbon, Hydrogen,Oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide one carbon ring two carbon rings many carbon rings
Function of cells Energy/storage Build complex structures Signal Molecules Part of DNA and RNA
Lipids (functions) Fats:Insoluble in water Functions:Energy source and storage/part of cell membrane/ signaling/protection
Triglycerides Type of lipid: entirely hydrophobic with 3 straight tails, link together/solids
Steroids Type of Lipid: no fatty acids/20 carbon atoms/ 4 carbon ring/no tails
Phospholipids Type of Lipid: 2 Tails, phosphate(hydrophilic) head, Hydrophobic tails
Fatty acids very hydrophobic/insoluble/nonpolar
Amino Acids Used as signals or precursers to other things Anime/Carboxyl/Side R group 20 common amino acids that differ at the R group
Proteins (functions) Polymers of amino acids formed by peptide bonds Function:enzymes, signaling, structure, defense, transport, motors, energy source.
Primary structure sequence of amino acids in a protein that determines everything
Nucleic Acid [[Polymers of nucleotides]] Carry energy,help enzymes, send messages
cell membrane Fluid mosaic model Phospholipids arrange in bi-layer, proteins stay in bi-layer Fluid part"unless anchored proteins/phospholipids can move freely)
Semi Permeable Selectively permeable Some things can pass in some cannot what can/ cant pass through is regulated This is determined by membrane protiens
Membrane Functions Seperate the outside and inside of a cell controls what enters/leaves (energy,information,material) Some chemical rxn's occur in or on membrane
organelles Structures that have specialized functions
Process Anything that can happen
Spontaneous Non-spontaneous happens on its own releases energy consumes energy
Coupled processes non-spontaneous process paired with a spontaneous and uses the spontaneous rxns energy to carry out its process
catalyst speed up reaction without being consumed
enzyme catalyst of biology, most are proteins and have metal parts
metabolism all chemical reactions and other processes
ATP A nucleotide that is an immediate energy source for cellular process that require energy Energy in almost all Processes
Membrane transport Important cell function that moves things in and out of cells
Passive transport Simple diffusion(high to low concentration) Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis transfer from high to low concentration (water) across a semi permeable membrane Water moves through aqua ports [[Water follows the solute]]
Facilitated diffusion requires transfer protein polar and charged ions
Isotonic Soln solute out = solute in No osmosis
Hypertonic Soln Solute out > solute in Osmosis directed out cell shrinks
Hypotonic Soln solute out < solute in Osmosis directed in Cell swells (can burst)
Active Transport Low to high concentration Requires energy usually ATP Requires a membrane protien (pump)
Oxidation Reduction Lose Electrons Gain Electrons
Oxidation/Reduction Electrons can be transferred as H+ ions happens in many rxns
Electrons/Energy Energy of a molecule depends on how much energy the electrons have
Photosynthesis Redox Rxn CO2 reduced, Water Oxidizes Couples with light rxn to occur light goes to chemical energy in the chloroplasts
Light RXN summary Light energy gets converted to chemical energy ATP- High energy NADPH Good Electron Donor NADPH has been made for the reduction of CO2
Calvin-Benson Cycle CO2 = Low energy CH2O = High energy Energy in ATP and NADPH added to the C atoms during the cycle C atoms reduced by NADPH G3P is the product (a 3-c Sugar)
Aerobic Cellular Respiration Process that gets energy out of high energy nucleotides in ATP Oxidation of Glucose = Spontaneous Synthesis of ATP is not spontaneous Is a redox process Glucose oxidized Oxygen reduced
Impt Reactions Redox: Substance level phosphorylations Decarbodylations Electrons Transferred as NADH and FADH Make Some ATP Release CO2
Krebs Cycle all 6 C atoms releas os CO2 Some energy transeferd to 4 ATP molecules H atoms and energy from glucose now NADH amd FADH2 Redox not finished most energy left in high energy electrons
Getting energy out of High Energy Electrons NADH and FADH2 travel through redox rxns in cristae membranes and release energy Energy used to actively transport H+ across cristae membrane Energy now in H+ which moves across membrane and ATP synthase uses that energy to make ATP
Created by: eriksherf



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