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CON 101

Chapter 1_3 EVOLUTION of CIVILIZATION

TermDefinition
MEET OUR ANCESTOR - MR. CAVEMAN • WHAT WAS IMPORTANT? - SURVIVAL!! • THE PALEOLITHIC ERA 380,000 BC to 9000 BC
MEET OUR ANCESTOR - MR. CAVEMAN • WHERE DID HE FIND IT (SURVIVAL)? – IN CAVES! • THE PALEOLITHIC ERA 380,000 BC to 9000 BC
SIGNIFICANT CHANGES DURING THIS PERIOD ( the paleolithic era) • IRRIGATION WAS “UNDERSTOOD” • ANIMALS WERE DOMESTICATED • MEN REPLACED WOMEN AS LABORERS
SIGNIFICANT CHANGES DURING THIS PERIOD ( the paleolithic era) • “EXPLOSION” IN DEVELOPMENT OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY • BEGINNINGS OF MIGRATION
WHO WERE THE PLAYERS? DURING THIS PERIOD ( the paleolithic era) • AURIGNACIANS & MAGDALENIANS
• What was it like? DURING THIS PERIOD ( the paleolithic era) – Warm in the winter – Cool in the summer – Dry & sheltered – Better than anything they could build! • PLUS - they had lots of food!
THE CONSTRUCTION CONNECTION DURING THIS PERIOD ( the paleolithic era) • FASHIONED NEW & SECONDARY TOOLS
THE CONSTRUCTION CONNECTION DURING THIS PERIOD ( the paleolithic era) • BEGAN EVOLUTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS and TECHNIQUES - – DRILLING – GRINDING – POLISHING
THE CONSTRUCTION CONNECTION DURING THIS PERIOD ( the paleolithic era) • UNDERSOOD MUSCLE POWER & ENERGY!
THE “BIG CHANGE” (ABOUT 20,000 B.C.) • CLIMATIC CHANGES: – ICE MELTED – GLACIERS RETREATED – THE RAINS CAME
THE “BIG CHANGE” (ABOUT 20,000 B.C.) • GEOGRAPHIC & DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES: – FORESTS GREW – THE GAME MIGRATED • NOW A HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT! • STAGNANT FOR NEXT 10,000 YEARS OR SO
OLDEST MAN-MADE STRUCTURE in the Paleolithic Era - 380,000 BC to 9000 BC ABOUT 25,000 B.C. IN RUSSIA • 39-ft x 10-ft COMMUNAL DWELLING – USED BY ROVING HUNTERS – PROTECTED BY 6-ft HIGH WALL • SIGNIFICANT FEATURES: – SUNK 10 ft WITH RAMPS – WALLS LINED WITH TIMBERS – ROOF: LOGS COVERED WITH EARTH – HEARTH WITH HOOD & CHIMNEY
MEANWHILE, IN NORTHERN AFRICA... during Neolithic Era (comfort stage) • AFTER 100,000 YEARS: – PEOPLE CHANGED THEIR DIETS TO GRAINS (OATS, BARLEY, WHEAT) – HUNTERS BECAME FARMERS • 8850 B.C.: “BELT CAVES” & 25-ft DIAM HUTS – THE “EARLIEST” FARMING CENTER
MT. CARMEL REGION - PALESTINE – BEGINNING OF NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Neolithic Era (8000 BC to 3500 BC) (comfort stage) • JERICHO (7800 B.C.) – NEAR DEAD SEA - HOT & DRY – PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS – INTRODUCED IRRIGATION – FLIMSY HUTS TURNED TO DUST
KURDISH HILLS - EAST OF THE TIGRIS RIVER Neolithic Era (8000 BC to 3500 BC) (comfort stage) • JARMO (6500 B.C.) – FIRST EVIDENCE OF “PISE" – MULTI-ROOMED RECTANGULAR HOUSES – USED STONE FOUNDATIONS – SOME TIMBER USED IN WALLS – LASTED ABOUT 2 GENERATIONS – LED TO THE MOUNDS OR “TELLS”
JERUSALEM • GOOD EXAMPLE OF “MOUNDING” > 40 SIEGES/OCCUPATIONS/DEVASTATIONS > AT LEAST 8 “JERUSALEMS” BUILT > ORIGINAL CITY 100 FEET BELOW CURRENT LEVEL!
JERICHO - 2nd & 3rd GENERATION DWELLINGS Neolithic Era (8000 BC to 3500 BC) (comfort stage) • BEEHIVE HOUSES BUILT WITH "PISE" – SURROUNDED BY MASONRY WALLS • RECTANGULAR HOUSES – SUN-BAKED BRICK WALLS • COVERED WITH PLASTER & PAINTED – PLASTERED & POLISHED FLOORS – WOOD DOOR FRAMES • STILL BEING BUILT
SOUTH OF NINEVEH- WEST BANK OF THE TIGRIS RIVER • HASSUNA (4500 B.C.) Neolithic Era (8000 BC to 3500 BC) -RECTANGULAR HOUSES -COURTYARD WITH SUBSIDIARY BUILDINGS -STORAGE ROOMS -USED "PISE" BLOCKS FOR WALLS -ROOF SYSTEM: •“FACINES” COVERED WITH THATCHING
Neolithic Era (8000 BC to 3500 BC) (comfort stage) * Rectangular Style Courtyard Houses in Tunisia * Neolithic farms
EUROPEAN COMMUNAL HOUSES ABOUT 4000 B.C. Neolithic Era (8000 BC to 3500 BC) (comfort stage) • DESCRIPTION: –160-ft LONG, RECTANGULAR –MADE MOSTLY FROM TIMBER –STEEPLY PITCHED ROOFS •RIDGE POLE •RAFTERS •COLUMNS –DIVIDED INTO HUMAN & ANIMAL AREAS •SEE “REPRESENTATIVE” SKETCH
KOLN-LINDENTHAL VILLAGE Neolithic Era (8000 BC to 3500 BC) (comfort stage) •RESETTLED 7 TIMES (4600 TO 4200 B.C.) •CONTAINED ABOUT 25 “HOUSEHOLDS” •100 - 150 VILLAGERS •10 YEAR INHABITATION •50 YEAR INTERVALS •VERY CROP DEPENDENT •LESSON LEARNED: NO SURPLUS! •REFERENCE THE SKETCH!
SKARA-BRAE VILLAGE (IN THE ORKNEY ISLANDS) •MIGRATION TO BRITAIN (3000 B.C.) BRONZE Era - 3500 BC to 1200 BC –BROUGHT THEIR: •LIVESTOCK •FARMING TOOLS (HOES, ETC.) •SEED CORN •UNKNOWN as to “WHY” they went SO FAR NORTH •ESTABLISHED MOST “ADMIRABLE” VILLAGE EVER DISCOVERED IN NORTH
SKARA-BRAE BRONZE Era - 3500 BC to 1200 BC BUILDING DESCRIPTION •7 HOUSES - EACH 20-ft x 18-ft •BUILT OF STONE; ROUNDED CORNERS •ROOFS WERE CORBELED •RAFTERS MADE FROM WHALE BONES •4-ft high STONE DOOR - PIVOTED •SQUARE HEARTH; STONE FURNITURE •SEWERS!
THE GARDEN OF EDEN BRONZE Era - 3500 BC to 1200 BC (ABOUT 3000 B.C.) •WHERE CIVILIZATION BEGAN (BIBLICAL) •PERSIAN GULF AREA –BETWEEN THE NILE & THE TIGRIS & EUPHRATES VALLEYS •TEEMED WITH FISH & FOWL •COOPERATIVE EFFORTS TO: –DRAIN THE SWAMPS –PROVIDE IRRIGATION –BUILD DAMS, SLUICES, CANALS
THE GARDEN OF EDEN EFFECTS OF BEING “CIVILIZED” BRONZE Era - 3500 BC to 1200 BC •HERE COME THE POLITICIANS! •THEN THE TAX COLLECTORS ! •SPURRED INTELLECTUAL DISCOVERIES –ARITHMETIC –GEOMETRY –ASTRONOMY •ALL HAD APPLICATION TO THE “BUILDING” PROCESS!
THE GARDEN OF EDEN THE SUMMERIAN REED HOUSE (today Iraq) BRONZE Era - 3500 BC to 1200 BC •REFLECTED THE “DELTA HERITAGE” •PRIMARY MATERIAL USED: REEDS –FORMED INTO “FACINES” –USED AS COLUMNS –USED AS BEAMS AND GIRDERS –USED AS RAFTERS
THE GARDEN OF EDEN THE SUMMERIAN REED HOUSE (today Iraq) BRONZE Era - 3500 BC to 1200 BC •HAD TWO “ELEVATIONS:” –THE ARCHED ROOF –THE SEMI-CIRCLE VAULTED ROOF •USED PISE’: –APPLIED TO THE REED FRAMEWORK –LED TO THE “TERRA-PISE’” CONCEPT –ANALOGOUS TO OUR STUCCO FINISH
THE “NEW” WORLD •ICE AGE UNTIL ABOUT 9000 BC (Paleolithic Era) •COOL & WET UNTIL ABOUT 5000 BC (Neolithic Era) •“AZ SUMMERS” UNTIL ABOUT 2000 BC •INHABITANTS WERE REALLY VERY PRIMITIVE UNTIL AFTER 2000 BC (Bronze Age) •HOWEVER, THE OLMEC, MAYANS, AZTECS & INCAS DID LEAVE THEIR STAMP ON CIVILIZATION!
AESTHETICS & ARCHITECTURE THE “NEW” WORLD •RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE •WENT THROUGH THE SURVIVAL & THE COMFORT STAGES •REACHED THE THIRD ELEMENT: BEAUTY/AESTHETICS •EMERGENCE OF ARCHITECTURE
ORIGINS OF WORDS •EGYPTIAN: –“URBS” - CITY, OR URBAN
ORIGINS OF WORDS •GREEK: –“POLITIKOS” - CIVIC OR CIVILIZATION –“POLIS” - CITY •“MATER-POLIS” (METROPOLIS) •“MEGA-POLIS” (MEGAPOLIS)
ORIGINS OF WORDS •MISCELLANEOUS: ENGLISH –“BURG” - A FORTIFIED PLACE
ORIGINS OF WORDS •MISCELLANEOUS: RUSSIAN –“GRAD” - A FORTIFIED PLACE
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS • THE GREAT CIVILIZATIONS WERE NOT DEVELOPED HAPHAZARDLY True
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS •PROGRESS & INNOVATION ARE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMANITY True
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS • A PROCESS OF GROWTH & GAIN; A SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING, STABILITY & POWER True
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS • A METHODICAL APPLICATION OF SKILLS & TECHNOLOGIES THAT WERE HANDED DOWN • RESPECT? YES!! True
Created by: natuttl1