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Genetics Test 1

Genetics Test 1 ppt 2

Chromatin Complex of DNA with histone and nonhistone protein. Organized into discrete bodies called chromosomes
Karyotype Number, size, and morphology of the chromosome set of a cell
Genome Chromosomes in a haploid set, or all the chromosomes in a diploid nucleus
Centromere positions, from the middle to the end Metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric or sub-telocentric, telocentric
Fundamental difference between asexual and sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction generates variation through genetic recombination
Cytokinesis Division of cytoplasm
Cell cycle Cycle of growth, mitosis, and cell division
Two phases of somatic cell cycle Interphase and mitotic or dividing phase
What occurs during interphase? DNA replication and synthesis of protein and nucleic acid components
What are the three stages of interphase? G1, S, and G2
S period Synthesis or replication of DNA
G1 period Synthesis of RNA, functional protein, and enzymes and substrates for DNA replication
G2 period Synthesis of structural protein, and spindle and aster protein. High energy demand
Uses of cell division Growth, replacement of cells, and wound healing
Five phases of mitosis Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Prophase Chromatin condenses and chromosomes become visible
Prometaphase Chromosomes continue condensing, nuclear membrane and nucleolus break down, centrioles migrate to poles of cell, spindle fibers extend
Metaphase Spindle fibers pull chromosomes into line along metaphase plate. Order is important, and each sister chromatid is attached by spindle fibers to opposite poles of cell
Anaphase Sister chromatids split and move to opposite poles of cell
Telophase Fibers from centrioles break down and nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes. Chromatin decondenses and nucleolus reappears
Spindle fibers Microtubules consisting of proteins called tubulins. Form spindle between two pairs of centrioles
Aster Microtubules radiating outward from centrioles
Kinetochore microtubules Invade nuclear space and attach to kinetochores during prometaphase
Polar microtubules Push against each other to move centrosomes apart
Kinetochore Multiprotein disk located on the centromere that is specialized to interact with spindle fibers during mitosis
When does crossing over occur? Prophase I of meiosis I
Synapsis Two homologous chromosomes come into side-by-side contact to form a bivalent
Bivalent Pair of homologous chromosomes held together by a complex
Tetrad Two pairs of chromatids, so four future chromosomes
What are the 5 stages of prophase I Leptonema, zygonema, pachynema, diplonema, and diakinesis
Leptonema Chromosomes begin to coil. Pairing of homologous chromosomes
Zygonema Yolk-thread. Synapsis, or the formation of the synaptonemal complex
Synaptonemal complex Zipper-like structure along length of chromatids
Pachynema Thick-thread. Synapsis is complete, crossing over occurs. Synapsis disassembles
Diplonema Double-thread. Homologues begin to separate. Chiasma becomes apparent
Chiasma Cross-shaped structure that is physical evidence of crossing over
Diakinesis Across thread. Chiasmata often terminalize and tetrads become clearly visible
What are PARs? Pseudoautosomal regions. Found on each end of Y chromosomes and allow sex chromosomes to pair and cross over even though they are not homologous.
What happens if the PAR is deleted from the short arm of the Y chromosome? Pairing does not occur between X and Y chromosomes, so the male is fertile
Metaphase I of meiosis I Tetrads align at metaphase plate
Anaphase I of meiosis I Homologous chromosomes are pulled apart, but sister chromatids stay together
What do the daughter cells of meiosis I contain? One of each of the homologous chromosomes. Sister chromatids are not identical
What does meiosis II result in? Four unidentical haploid daughter cells
What does spermatogenisis result in? Four spermatids that develop into spermatozoa
What does oogenisis result in? One ovum and three polar bodies
Gametophyte Haploid plant stage in which gametes are produced by meiosis (sexual)
Sporophyte Diploid plant stage in which haploid spores are produced by mitosis (asexual)
Pistil Female part of a flower. Includes stigma, style, and ovary
Stamen Male part of a flower. Includes anther and filament
Megasporogenisis Meiosis in female part of the flower that produces a megaspore
Megagametophyte Cell with eight identical haploid nuclei in a common cytoplasm. Produced by megaspore undergoing three successive rounds of nuclear mitotic divisions
Embryo sac Entire seven-celled megagametophyte structure. One cell becomes the egg
Microsporogenisis Meiosis in male part of the flower that produces pollen grains
Process of microsporogenisis Anther>four pollen sacs>diploid microspore mother cells>four haploid microspores (pollen)
Significance of sex Generate genetic diversity through independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization
Created by: iragland



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