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2.1 Biology

chapter 2

matter anything that has mass and takes up space
mass a measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object, such as a gravitational force
element a substance that cannot be broken down or separated into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
nucleus in physical science, an atoms central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element
neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge, and that is located in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus, is the same for all atoms of an element
mass number the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atoms nucleus
electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
orbital a region of an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
isotope an that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but has a different number of neutrons (different atomic mass)
compound a substance made up of atoms of 2 or more different elements joined by a chemical bond
chemical bond the attraction force that holds atoms or ions together
covalent bond chemical link between 2 atoms in which electrons are shared between them
molecule a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substances chemical properties
ion an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
ionic bond the attraction force between oppositely charged ions, which from when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Created by: ChambersA20