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Microbial Metabolism


Metabolism All chemical reactions within a living organism
All chemical reactions within a living organism effects the cell by: –Growth –Reproduction –Maintain structures –Respond to the environment
Catabolism_____ energy. releases energy
Breaking down of complex chemicals into simple ones (degradative reaction Catabolism
Anabolism_______) energy. stores
Building up complex chemicals from simple ones (biosynthetic reaction) Anabolism_
Drive all biological processes enzymes
Mostly proteins (a few are RNA) that accelerate (catalyze) chemical reactions enzymes
Enzyme structure: 3D-shape unique to a specific enzyme
The Lock and key concept of an enzyme: Flexible complementary geometric shapes that fit into one another
Enzymes mechanisms__________________________. Speed up chemical reactions under physiological conditions
Lower activation energy includes: Increase frequency of collision • Orient molecules • Shield opposite charges on substrates • Break chemical bonds • Form new chemical bond
Substance that the enzyme acts on Enzyme substrate
Enzyme does not change during reaction (it is not consumed) T/F True
Reactions occur up to 10 billion times faster than without enzyme ?T/F True
Production of carbonic acid in the cell Without enzyme? 200 molecules/hour
Production of carbonic acid in the cell with an enzyme with the enzyme carbonic anhydrase ? • 600,000 molecules/sec
Most enzymes consist of a ? a protein and a cofactor
The Protein portion of an enzyme is called a? Apoenzyme
Nonprotein portion for an enzyme is called? cofactor
The Nonprotein portion cofactor and be i_________ or o______. inorganic or organic
Organic nonprotein portion cofactor consist of: coenzymens
Inorganic nonprotein portion cofactor consist of: metals
Apoenzyme + Cofactor = Holoenzyme
many are derived from vitamins Cofactor
small molecules, not an structural part of the enzyme coenzymes
Coenzymes function as: Electron carriers/transfer Usually interact briefly with enzyme (organic)
An example of a coenzyme is N__+ NAD+
Factors that influencing enzymatic activity are: • Temperature • pH • Inhibitors
Protein denaturing agents are can be P______or C_____. Physical Chemical
Inhibitors include Heavy-metal ions (lead, arsenic, mercury, etc.) – Chemicals structurally similar to substrate (competitive inhibition) – Protein denaturing agents • Physical • Chemical
Enzyme inhibitors Competitive: Substances similar to substrate and bind to active site
Example of Enzyme Competition is (PABA)________________ Sulfanilamide – para-amino benzoic acid
Inorganic cofactors are a p_________component of the enzyme Permanent component of the enzyme
Metal ions (Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca, Co, etc) are examples of : inorganic cofactors
Bridge between substrate and enzyme inorganic cofactor
Enzyme inhibitors that are non competitive and that tie up cofactor metals Example C______ binds to Fe- Cyanide binds strongly to Fe –Inhibits the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase which needs Fe as a cofactor
Cyanide binds strongly to Fe –Inhibits the enzyme: cytochrome c oxidase
In allosteric inhibition the enzyme: it is a Normal regulatory physiological process – andthe End product binds to allosteric site changing its shape
Ribozymes are: are non protein enzymes
Ribozymes are made of r___ and act on r___ s__________. –Made of RNA andAct on RNA substrates
Removes segments from RNA (introns) –Splices remaining pieces and Renders mRNA Ribozymes
Energy Production of eukaryotes occurs in the : Cytoplasm and mitochondria
Energy Production of bacteria cells occur in the: Cytoplasm and plasma membrane
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ATP breaks down to ADP and inorganic phosphate • Release of high amounts of energy
Other high energy molecules (coenzymes)________________ Transfer energy (electrons) among molecules
Temporary electron acceptors-donors are •NAD, FAD
The oxidation form of the electron acceptos- donors are: NAD+, AND FAD+
The reduction from of the electron acceptors-donors are NADH+ and FADH+
What happens during oxidation-reduction (Redox reactions) ? Transfer of electrons (e–) from one molecule to another molecule occur
The carriers of e–in biological reactions are: Coenzymes (cofactors)
Highly reduced compounds (many C-H bonds) are: are high in energy (sugars, fats)
Highly oxidized compounds (few or no CH bonds) are low in energy
The two Energy metabolisms are: Respiration and or Fermentation
In respiration the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule 02
In fermentation the final electron acceptor is: an organic molecule (pyrvic acid or a molecule that deprives from it)
The steps of respiration include: • Glycolysis • Krebs cycle • Electron transport chain (system) –Final electron acceptor • Inorganic molecule (i.e. oxygen
The steps of Fermentation include: Glycolysis • Reduction of pyruvic acid • Final electron acceptor –Organic molecule (pyruvic acid or a molecule derived from it)
In eukaryotes respiration and fermentation occur in the : cytoplasm
L___________and P___________may be the source of electrons for glycolysis, respiration and fermentation Lipids and Protiens
Fermentation Degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule (pyruvic acid from glycolysis) –Internal acceptor
Created by: 1155187441193384