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EBR EMS Chapter 8 Definitions

acetylcholine chemical neurotransmitter
afferent neuron neuron that carries impulses toward the central nervous system from the periphery
anesthesia loss of sensation
arachnoid mater delicate, weblike middle membrane covering the brain, the meninges
astrocytes a glial cell
axon nerve cell process that transmitts impulses away from the cell body
catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine
cerebrospinal fluid fluid that fills the subarachnoid space in the brain and spinal cord and in the cerebral ventricles
choroid plexus a network of brain capillaries that are involved with the production of cerebrospinal fluid
dendrite a nerve cell process that transmits impulses toward the body
dermatome skin surface areas supplied by a single spinal nerve
dopamine chemical neurotransmitter
dura mater outermost layer of meninges
effector neuron neuron that transmits impulses from the central nervous system to the periphery
endorphins chemical in neurtal nervous system that influences pain perception
enkephalins peptide chemical in the central nervous sytem that acts as a natural painkiller
fight-or-flight response the changes produced by increased sympathetic impulses allowing the body to deal with any type of stress
ganglia a region of gray nerve tissue
ganglion a group of nerve-cell bodies located in the PNS
glia supporting cells of nervous tissue
hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid
interneuron nerves that conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
limbic system a collection of various small regions of the brain that act together to produce emotion response
meninges fluid-containing membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
microglia one type of connective tissue found in the brain and spinal cord
motor neuron transmits nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glandular epithelial tissues
multiple sclerosis the most common primary disease of the central nervous system
myelin lipoid substance found in the myelin sheath around some nerve fibers
neurilemma nerve sheath
neurons nerve cell, including axons and dendrites
neurotransmitter chemicals by which neurons communicate
nodes of Ranvier indentations that are found between adjacent Schwann cells
norephinephrine hormone secreted by adrenal medulla, released by sympathetic nervous system
oligodendrocyte a cell that holds nerve fibers together and produces the myelin sheath around axons in the central nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system part of the autonomic nervous system, ganglia connected to the brainstem and the sacral segments of the spinal cord
pia mater the vascular innermost covering of the brain and spinal cord
postganglionic neuron autonomic neuron that conducts nerve impulses from a ganglion to cardiac or smooth muscle or glandular epithelial tissue
postsynaptic neuron a neuron situated distal to the synapse
preganglionic neuron autonomic neuron that conducts nerve impulses between the spinal cord and a ganglion
presynaptic neuron a neuron situated proximal to a synapse
receptors peripheral beginning of a sensory neuron's dendrite
reflex arc allows an impulse to travel in only one direction
saltatory conduction when a nerve impulse encounters myelin and "jumps" from one node of Ranvier to the next
Schwann cell (shwon) large nucleated cells that form myelin
sensory neuron neurons that transmit impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all parts of the body
serotonin a neurontransmitter that belongs to a group of compounds called catecholamines
sympathetic nervous system part of the autonomic nervous system, ganglia are connected to the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
synapse junction between adjacent neurons
synaptic cleft the space between a synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron
synaptic knob a tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron's axon that contains vesicles with neurotrasmitters
tract a single nerve pathway made up of several bundles of axons and extending through the central nervous system
Created by: hjkruse