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Cells part II


The Plasma membrane is made of: Phosolipid biylaer which consist of a Hydrophilic head and a Hydrophilic tail
A phospholipid consist of of a glycerol, 2fatty acids, Phosphate
Peripheral proteins are are enzymes and supporting framework
Integral or transmembrane proteins: transport and contain receptors
Plasma membrane functions are: Selective barrier • Transport - Active - Passive • Energy production (ATP) - Electron transport chain (prokaryotes)
Transport across membranes can be : passive or active
Passive Transport: No energy needed • Flow of transported substance • From high to low concentration
Active Transport: – Energy needed • Flow of transported substance • From low to high concentration
Passive transport or Simple diffusion stops when: reaching equilibrium
Examples of passive transport are: • Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Passive transport Facilitated diffusion is : No energy required From higher to lower concentration, i.e. Mediated by transporter proteins (permeases)
Mediated by transporter proteins (permeases) • Water filled channels • Ions, charged molecules and relatively large molecules
Osmosis: Water (solvent) molecules move towards high solute concentration across a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic solution: No net movement of water
Hypotonic (Osmotic Lysis) water moves into the cell and may cause the cell to burst if the wall is weak or damaged
Hypertonic (Plasmolysis) water moves out of the cell causing it to shrink
Most bacteria cells live in_______? Hypotonic environments
Active transport requires ______________. energy
The concentration movement in Active transport is: from low to high
Transporter/carrier proteins • Simple active transport Transported molecule does not change
Group translocation (unique to prokaryotes) Modification of transported molecule as it enters the cell
The cytoplasm consist of: –Water (~80%) –Proteins –Carbohydrates – Lipids – Inorganic ions –DNA –RNA – Inclusions
Nuclear area (Nucleoid) No nuclear membrane One chromosome attached to plasma membrane
species may have 2 chromosomes examples are: Vibrio spp. Brucella spp
The chromosomes contain: About 3,200 genes • Circular double stranded DNA (most) – Linear double stranded DNA (a few, Borrelia spp.)
Bacterial plasmids Extrachromosomal genetic material • About 5 to 100 genes • Not crucial for survival • Great variety of genetic traits • Antibiotic resistance, enzymes, toxins, etc • Transferable to other bacteria • Major tool in genetic engineering
Bacterial ribosomes function: to make protein
Two subunits 30 and 50 S = 70 S (each made of rRNA and protein)
T/F Bacterial ribosomes are smaller than eukaryote ribosomes. true
Inclusions are: • Reserve deposits (usually polymers) –Lipids, sulfur –Metachromatic granules • Inorganic phosphate –Polysaccharide granules • Starch-like –Gas • Buoyancy
Molecules concentrated in inclusions_____________. reduce osmotic pressure
Endospores are______ Gram-positives
Examples of Endospores are : Bacillus spp. • Clostridium spp
Endorspores are: Highly resistant dormant form – Highly dehydrated – Multiple layers – Rich in dipicolinic acid/Ca+ complexes – Provide heat stability
eukaryotic cell Larger and more complex than prokaryotes • 10 to 100 m • Membranebound organelles
Flagella in eukaryotic cells: –Taxis • Wave-like motion very few and long in length
Cilia in eukaryotic cells: Movement of substances over the surface of the cell • Digestive and respiratory tracts numerous and short
Eukaryotic cells contain: sterols (cholesterol) in the plasmis membrane
Eukaryotes passive transport include: • Diffusion • Facilitated diffusion • Osmosis
Eukaryotes active transport have no • No group translocation
Endocytosis (unique to eukaryotes) taking things substance into the cell
Phagocytosis particles
Pinocytosis liquid
The Cytoskeleton consist of: Microfilaments – Intermediate filaments – Microtubules
Cytoskeleton functions include: Shape – Movement • Entire cell • Substances within the cell
Nucelus: Spherical to oval •Contains linear DNA •Replication •DNA→DNA •Transcription •DNA→RNA
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Network of sacs next to nucleus • Synthesis of lipids and proteins • Rough ER • Ribosomes (80S) • Smooth ER –Lipid synthesis
Rough ER • Ribosomes (80S)
Smooth ER –Lipid synthesis
Golgi Complex Receives ER products – Sorts – packages – delivers (secretory vesicles)
Lysosomes Derived from Golgi complex • Free spheres in cytoplasm • Contain powerful digestive enzymes • Numerous in white blood cells
Mitochondria multiply on their own
Double membrane – Multi-folded inner membrane – Provides a large surface for proteins involved in cellular respiration (ATP synthesis) mitochondria
Contains circular DNA • Bacteria-like ribosomes (70S) mitochondria
Created by: 1155187441193384



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