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Prokaryotic and euka

Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
Eukaryotic cells have a N______ and membrane enclosed organelles. Nucleus
Membrane organelles are present in Eukaryotic cells are present in: • Animals • Plants • Fungi • Protozoa
Bacteria and Archaea are called: Prokaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells do not have: a nucleus or membrane-enclosed organelles
Prokaryotic cells are Differentiation by: • Morphology • Cell wall structure • Nutritional requirements • Biochemical activities • Source of energy • Sequence of genetic material • Size
The typical size of a Prokaryotic cell is – 0.2 to 2.0 um in diameter – 2.0 to 8.0 um in length
Most common shapes of bacteria cells are: Coccus Cocobacillus Vibrio Bacillus Sprillium Sprirochete
Most common shapes of Bacteria cells are: Coccus Cocobacillus Vibrio Bacillus Sprillium Sprirochete
Chains (prefix strepto) are: Divide into one plane
Diplococci Divided into one plane
Tetrads are divided : into two planes
Sarcinae are divided: into three planes
Staphylococci are divided into: Divide in multiple planes
Staphylococcus aureus are resistant to _____. Methicillin-resistant
Structures external to the bacterial cell wall are: • Glycocalyx • Flagella • Axial filaments • Fimbriae and pili
Glycocalyx is composed of a ______coat sugar
Glycocalyx can have a C______or S_____ L____. Capsule (firm) or slime layer (loose)
Made of polysaccharides in most bacteria, and polypeptides in a few bacteria Glycocalyx
Glycocalyx main function is to: • Inhibits phagocytosis • Attachment to host and environmental surfaces • Protects against desiccation (dehydration) (outside environment)
Bacterial slime in our food? Xanthomonas campestris
Xanthomonas campestris • Source of the polysaccharide xanthan gum • Stable at high temperatures • 1% in water thickens it significantly
Xanthomonas campestris in foods is used to : – Emulsifing and stabilizing agent in salad dressings, ice creams,
Xanthomonas campestris in the industry is used to : – Thickening agent (oil industry) • Drilling “mud”
Some Biofilm health effects of medical implants are are: -Catheters – Heart valves – Prostheses – Contact lenses
Biofilm health effects also include tooth decay and gingivitis
Flagella are: Long filamentous appendagesand are made of the protein flagellin
Flagella are the bacteria motility. Positve towards
Flagella are the bacteria motility. Negative Away
T/F Some bacteria lack flagella true
Monotrichous one flagellum
Atrichous no flagellum
Operation of Flagella if it moves counterclockwise : it runs
Operation of Flagella if it moves clockwise: it tumbles
Axial filaments are present in? Present in spirochette cells
Axial filaments are present in? Present in spirochette cells
Adapted to viscous fluids and wrap around the cell? Axial Filaments
Two types of Axial Filaments are? Treponema pallidum and – Borrelia burgdorferi
Treponema pallidum is: Syphilis
Borrelia burgdorferi is: Lyme disease
Axial filaments are present in? Present in spirochette cells
Adapted to viscous fluids and wrap around the cell? Axial Filaments
Two types of Axial Filaments are? Treponema pallidum and – Borrelia burgdorferi
Treponema pallidum is: Syphilis
Borrelia burgdorferi is: Lyme disease
Other forms of bacterial motility include: • Motility over low-water content surfaces • Gliding motility (smooth) • Mediated by specialized projections
Twitching (grappling) motility (jerky) – Extends  adheres  contracts Mediated by specialized projections (pili) or pilus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa moves by: twitching
Fimbriae: Made of pilin – Short thin appendages some bacteria (about 1,000/cell) • Help cells to adhere to surfaces and to one another • Virulence (attachment) factor
E coli are attached to the intestinal mucosa by: fimbriae
Sex pilus are present in gram_____. negative bacteria
Sex pilus are made of: Made of pilin protein
Sex pilus bridges related bacteria and: performs a DNA transfer (conjugation)
The Cell envelope is All structural layers covering the cytoplasm
The cell wall: Protects the cell from high internal osmotic pressure – Lattice formed by peptidoglycan (murein) • Strong elastic sac – Present in most bacteria
The cell wall is present in all bacteria. T/F False (the cell wall is present in most bacteria)
Lattice formed by peptidoglycan (murein) • Strong elastic sac cell wall
Peptidoglycan is a: Repeating disaccharides crosslinked by polypeptides
Gram-positive cells have Teichoic acids and lipoteichoic acids
Teichoic acids and lipoteichoic acids -Stability of peptidoglycans – Cell division – Attachment to surfaces
Gram-negative cells have – Lipoprotein-lipopolysaccharide-phospholipid -A thin poorly-organized peptidoglycan layer -Outer membrane
The Outer membrane in Gram-negative cells : – Protects against phagocytosis – Porins • Transport of small hydrophilic molecules –Sugar and some amino acids – Barrier to many substances • Penicillin • Lysozyme
Unique to Gramnegative cells: Periplasmic space
Periplasmic space (periplasm) • Area between the “two membranes” – Contains the cell wall (peptidoglycans) – Abundance of digestive enzymes and selective transport proteins
Atypical bacterial cells Mycoplasma bacteria lack cell walls Cell membrane contains sterols
Has a Highly impermeable wax coat –Mycolic acid: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (acid fast bacteria) atypical
– Cell wall contains pseudomurein instead of murein (peptidoglycans) Archaea
Created by: 1155187441193384