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Rad Tech Pathology

Unit 1 Key Terms

TermDefinition
Acute Having a quick onset and lasting a short period of time with a relatively severe course.
Asymptomatic Showing or causing no identifiable symptoms
Atrophy A reduction in size or wasting of cells, tissues, or organs as a result of poor nutrition or nonuse
Autoantibody Antibody acting against its own tissue or organism. Ex-Lupus-chronic autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body
Autoimmunne disorder Disease in which antibodies form against and injure the patient's own tissues, in contrast to the normal process in which antibodies form in response to foreign antigens.
Benign Neoplasm A localized tumor of well-differentiated cells that does not invade surrounding tissue or metastasize to distant areas within the body
Carcinoma A malignant growth composed of epithelial cells that tends to invade surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases
Chronic Presenting slowly and persisting over a long period of time.
Congenital Existing at &usually before birth & resulting from genetic or environmental factors. 2%-3% of all infants born have one or more of these. Usually occur due to abnormalities in the number & distribution of chromosomes.
Degenerative Refers to deterioration of the body usually associated with the aging process. Ex- atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis.
Diagnosis The name of a disease an individual is believed to have
Disease Any abnormal disturbance of the normal function or structure of a body part, organ, or system; may display a variety of manifestations.
Dysplasia Abnormal tissue development. Abnormal changes of mature cells.
Epidemiology The investigation of disease in large groups. Distributions of health states (good health, disease, etc.) tend to not be random within a population and are influenced by factors such as biology, social, and environment.
Etiology The study of the cause and origin of disease
Genetic mapping Used to assign the distance between genetic markers. Can be used to track inheritance traits and diseases that are transmitted from parent to child.
Genome The entirety of an organism's hereditary information, including both the genes and the non-coding sequences of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Hematogenous Spread Spread of malignant cancer through the blood
Hereditary Genetically transferred from either parent to child and derived from ancestors
Hyperplasia Increase in the number of cells in tissue. Ex-estrogen-secreting ovarian tumor causing endometrial epithelial cells to multiply
Hypertrophy Increase in cell size. Ex-muscle _______ due to body building
Iatrogenic Pertains to any adverse condition that occurs in a patient as a result of medical treatment. Ex- contrast media reaction during a CT exam.
Idiopathic A disease having no identifiable causative factor
Incidence A statistical measure that refers to the number of new cases of a disease found in a given time period. A disease of high prevalence in a geographical location is endemic to that area
Infection An inflammatory process caused by exposure to some disease-causing organism.
Inflammatory Refers to the body process of destroying, diluting, or walling off a localized injurious agent. Most often localized infection is accompanied by this, can occur without infection.
Invasion -The spread of cancerous cells into surrounding tissue by virtue of the proximity of the areas.
Lesion Term used to describe the various types of cellular changes that can occur in response to a disease
Leukemia A malignant disease of the leukocytes and their precursor cells in blood and bone marrow. Stated differently, is a cancer that arises from blood cells.
Lymphatic Spread Cancer that spreads through the lymphatic system
Lymphoma Neoplastic growth in the lymphatic system
Malignant Neoplasm A lesion that grows, spreads, and invades other tissues
Manifestations Observable changes resulting from cellular changes in the disease process.
Metabolism -The normal physiologic function of the body. An example is dehydration which upsets homeostasis due to a lack of fluid intake
Metaplasia Conversion of a specific type of tissue into a different kind of tissue. Ex: smokers’ epithelial cells in the respiratory tract undergo this and change to a different types of epithelial cells.
Metastatic Spread The spread of cancer cells.
Morbidity rate The incidence in the population of illness sufficient to interfere with an individual's normal daily routine
Morphology The form and structure of disease
Mortality rate The number of deaths from a particular disease averaged over a population
Neoplasm Pertaining to new, abnormal tissue growth. They can be benign or malignant.
Nosocomial A disease originating in a hospital
Pathogenesis Refers to the sequence of events producing cellular changes that lead to observable changes called manifestations
Prevalance A statistical measure that refers to the number of cases of a disease found in a given population
Prognosis The prediction of course and outcome for a given disease
Sarcoma A type of tumor, often highly malignant, composed of a substance similar to embryonic connective tissue. A cancer that arises from connective tissue
Seeding Traveling of cancerous cells to a distant site or distant organ
Sequelae Conditions resulting from a disease. Ex-chronic kidney disease can be This in reference to diabetes
Sign An objective manifestation of disease perceptible to the managing physician
Symptom Any subjective evidence of a disease as perceived by a patient.
Syndrome A group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a specific abnormal disturbance
Traumatic Pertaining to the effects of a wound or injury, whether physical or psychological.
Virulence The ease with which an organism overcomes body defenses. An organism with high ______ is likely to produce diseases in susceptible people
Created by: qgarcia