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McC TAKS Objective 2

Dominant Trait observed trait of an organism that mask the recessive form of a trait; these alleles show their effect on the phenotype whenever they are present in the genotype
Recessive Trait trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
Phenotype a combination of the organism's genetic makeup and the environment's effect on that makeup; physical appearance
Pedigree the descendants of one individual
Homeostasis/Equilibrium The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium
Negative Feedback a mechanism of the endocrine system that chemically corrects an imbalance; called “negative feedback” because when the level of the imbalance decreases, the feedback stops the correcting effects
System Levels (organization) KPCOFGS King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti (mnemonic for taxonomy order: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)
Animal Cell organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures enclosed within cell membranes: can not make their own food
Plant Cell a cell that is a structural and functional unit of a plant, is enclosed within a cell wall and can make its own food
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses
Photosynthesis a process in which organisms, with the aid of chlorophyll (green plant enzyme), convert carbon dioxide and inorganic substances into oxygen and additional plant material, using sunlight for energy
Ecological Succession Process in which communities of plant and animal species in a particular area are replaced over time by a series of different communities
Autotroph An organism that makes its own food (as in plants)
Heterotroph Describes an organism that obtains its energy through consuming other organisms
Carrying Capacity Maximum number of individuals of a given species that the enviorment will support.
Pollutant Any substance that contaminates the enviorment.
Enzyme A protein that helps chemical reactions in organisms occur more quickly.
Recycle Conservation method in which materials are used again.
Nonpoint Source Pollution Pollution that enters water from a large area and cannot be traced to a single location.
Point Source Pollution Pollution that enters water from a specific location and can be contolled or treated before it enters a body of water.
Pesticides Substance that is used to keep insects and weeds from destroying crops and lawns.
Fertilizer Chemical that helps plants and other organisms grow.
Acid Rain Acidic moisture, with a pH below a 5.6, that falls to Earth as rain of snow and can damage forests, harm organisms, and corrode structures.
pH Scale Scale that is used to measure how acidic or basic something is.
Sewage Water that goes into drains and contains human waste, household detergents, and soaps.
Evolution Change in the genetics of a species over time.
Natural Selection Process by which organisms that are suited to a particular enviorment are better able to survive and reproduce than organisms that are not.
Mutation Process that changes DNA to form new alleles.
Adaptive Radiation Production of several species from ancestral species.
Extinction Occurs when the last member of a species dies; causes a loss of diversity among living things.
Organic carbon based life form - is alive or was once alive
Inorganic relating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis
Succession the rebuilding of populations in a community or ecosystem that has been changed
pollutant any substance that contaminates the environment
producers make their own food - grass, trees
consumers feeds on other living organisms; can't make their own food - deer eat grass; hawk eats snake
decomposers any organism that feeds off of decomposing organic material. Especially bacterium or fungi
ecosystems a community of organisms and where the organisms live
Created by: MCJH