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Ch. 6

Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing

TermDefinition
Eosinophils Defend against parasites; degrade vasoactive substances released by mast cells
Mast cells Release chemicals that initiate the inflammatory response (histamine)
Natural Killer (NK) Cells Eliminate virus-infected cells
Macrophages Phagocytize microorganisms and cellular debris; secrete chemicals that promote tissue healing; activate adaptive immunity
Neutrophils Phagocytize microorganisms and cellular debris soon after injury; secrete chemicals that call in longer-acting phagocytes
Fibrinous exudate Thick and clotted; indicate more advanced inflammation
Purulent exudate also knows as suppurative; containing many white blood cells and indicating bacterial infection (pus)
Hemorrhagic exudate Containing many red blood cells indicating bleeding
Serous exudate Watery, with few proteins or cells; indicates early inflammation
Innate immunity nonspecific first line of defense; physical and biochemical barriers
Adaptive immunity also known as acquired immunity is specific, meaning one cell will defend against only one particular antigen
Complement system produce biologically active fragments that recruit phagocytes, activate mast cells, and destroy pathogens; activate cascade
Coagulation (clotting) system forms a fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflammed site
Kinin system functions to activate and assist inflammatory cells;
Opsonins mark antigen for destruction by innate immune cells
Chemotactic factor attracts leukocyte to inflammation cite
Anaphylatoxins induce mast cell degranulation (C3, C4, C5) produced as part of the activation of complement system
Classical pathway activated by proteins of the adaptive immune system (antibodies) bound to their specific targets (antigen)
Lectin pathway activated by mannose-containing bacterial carbohydrates (MBL)
Alternative pathway activated by gram-negative bacterial and fungal cell wall polysacchrides
Fibrin end product of coagulation cascade; protein involved in clotting of the blood
Bradykinin an inflammatory mediator that cause dilation of blood vessels, pain, and smooth muscle contraction, an increasing vascular permeability. the primary kinin in its system;
Cytokines responsible for activating other cells and regulating inflammatory response
Chemokines induce chemotaxis to attract WBCs to cite of infection and promote phagocytosis and wound healing
Interleukins produced primarily by macrophages and lymphocytes in response to stimulation of pattern recognition receptors or by other cytokines
Interferon protects against viral infection by preventing them from infecting other healthy cell;
Degranulation chemical release of the contents of mast cell granules; immediate response
Synthesis the new production and release of mediators in response to a stimulus; long term response
Histamine vasoactive amine that is produced as part of a local immune response to cause inflammation
Platelets also known as thrombocytes; activation lead to interaction with coagulation cascade to stop bleeding
Neutrophils predominate in early inflammatory responses (6-10 days after injury);
Eosinophils defense against parasites and regulation of vascular mediators
Basophils associated with asthma and allergies with same function as mast cells
Phagocytosis process by which a cell ingests and disposes of foreign material
Margination known as pavementing; adherence of leukocytes to endothelial cells
Diapedesis emigration of cells through the endothelial junctions
Resolution returning injured tissue to the original structure and function
Repair replacement of destroyed tissue with scar tissue
Scar tissue composed primarily of collagen to restore the strength of the tissue but not its function
Primary intention wounds that heal under conditions of minimal tissue loss
Secondary intention wounds that require a great deal more tissue replacement ie. open wound
Created by: dpenaga