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Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology

Apoptosis Cell death that involves orderly dismantling of cell components and packaging the remainders in vesicles
Free Radical An atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron
Livor Mortis Purple discoloration of dependent tissues after death
Liquefactive necrosis Area of cell death in which cells are digested by their own enzymes, becoming soft and runny; neurons and glial cell of brain
Rigor Mortis Stiffening of skeletal muscles after death
Coagulative necrosis Area of cell death in which denatured proteins appear firm and opaque; kidneys, heart, and adrenal glands
Autophagy A type of cellular housekeeping in which a cell digests some of its own component; contributes to the aging process
Caseous necrosis Area of cell death in which dead cells disintegrate, but the debris is not digested completely by enzymes; TB pulmonary infection
Adaptation reversible structural or functional response to change (physiological OR pathological)
Atrophy Decrease in cell size Physiologic- occurs in early development Pathologic- results from decrease in workload, use, and stimulation
Hypertrophy Increase in cell size Physiologic- response to heavy work (ie excercise) Pathologic- ie. enlarged cardiac muscle of left ventricle
Hyperplasia Increase in cell number and rate of cellular division Physiologic- Regenerate (compensatory) or hormonal (ie. uterus) Pathologic- abnormal proliferation of normal cell
Metaplasia Reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another less mature cell type
Dysplasia Deranged cellular growth; is not a true cellular adaptation but rather an atypical hyperplasia
Hypoxia Lack of sufficient oxygen; most common cause of cellular injury
Ischemia Reduced blood supply caused by narrow arteries and blockage by blood clots; most common cause of hypoxia
Anoxia Sudden complete block, no time for cellular adaptation
Reactive oxygen species Unstable molecule that contains oxygen
Necrosis Cellular death by severe swelling and breakdown of organelles
Apoptosis Programmed cell death; self-destruction
Reperfusion injury Additional injury when oxygen is restored
Xenobiotics Foreign objects
Suffocation Oxygen fails to reach the blood
Strangulation Closure of blood vessel and air passage from external pressure on neck
Chemical asphyxiants Prevent oxygen to the tissues and block its use
Hemoproteins Combination of hemoglobin and cytochrome; accumulative by excess iron
Bilirubin Yellow-green bile pigment
Dystrophic Dead tissue in chronic tuberculosis in lungs
Metastatic Mineral deposit in normal tissue resulted from excess calcium
Gangrenous Necrosis Death of tissue from severe hypoxic injury mostly result from artery blockage in lower leg; dry gangrene is black wrinkles vs wet gangrene swells up black and creates foul pus odor
Algor Mortis Rate at which body temperature decrease and cools down after death
Postmortem Autolysis After the somatic death of an organism, the final stage of death is the breakdown and decay of the organism
Created by: dpenaga