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Is artificial selection or natural selection teleogical? Artificial selection because teleogical means goal oriented or selection of a particular characteristic. Ex. Different dog breeds, wild mustard artificially selected for different parts.
Wild Mustard is artificially selected for what different vegetables? Leaves (Kale), Stems and Flowers (Broccoli), Flower clusters (cauliflower), terminal bud (cabbage), lateral buds (brussel sprouts), stem (kohlrabi)
What is the most simple multicellular animal in world? The Sponge
Define Zoology The study of animals
How many named animals and how many named organisms? 1 million animals and 1.5 to 1.75 organisms.
Natural selection is a law, idea, theory or hypothesis? theory
Define a theory A theory is an idea that is tested over and over again until few doubt its believability. We accept the theory, but we do tweak it over time. Natural selection is an example of a theory.
Is it correct to say that natural selection and evolution are the same thing or synonymous terms? NO, natural selection is one of the mechanisms of evolution. But there are other mechanisms as well.
T/F. Individuals evolve. False, individuals do not evolve, instead populations evolve.
Define an allele An allele is an alternative form of a gene.
Define genetic change Genetic change is a change in allele frequency in a population.
What are the mechanisms that change allele frequency? Mutation, migration, genetic drift, inbreeding, and natural selection
Do larger or smaller populations buffer genetic drift or changes of chance? Larger populations buffer genetic drift or changes of chance.
What is the only way to get new alleles in the population? mutation
Define mutation mutation is a change in gene structure.
What are the three potential outcomes of mutation? harmful, neutral or beneficial
Mutation is always what? Random
What are the two roles of mutation in evolution? Change of allele frequency and introduction of new alleles in a population
Which mutation effect has the greatest impact on natural selection? Introduction of new alleles in the population has a bigger effect than changes in allele frequency.
Define migration as it pertains to a mechanism of change of allele frequency. Migration acts as a mechanism of change for allele frequency when individuals of one population move into another population.
What is gene flow? Gene flow is also referred to as migration. Migration occurs when individuals move from one population to another and introduce their alleles. Migration is one mechanism that changes allele frequency.
Define genetic drift: Random changes in allele frequency due to chance processes or changes such as deaths, chance accidents or natural disasters.
Genetic drift can have significant impacts on small populations in what two ways? population bottlenecks and founder effect
Give two examples of the effect of genetic drift on a small population. population bottlenecks (Northern Elephant Seals and cheetahs) founder effect (amish-Ellis van crevald)
Why is genetic drift such an important mechanism on the change of allele frequency? End. sp. have small pop. sizes and therefore reduced genetic variation. End. Sp. have restricted genetic response to environmental change and are therefore very vulnerable to genetic drift.
What mechanism of changes to allele frequency has a significant impact on endangered species? genetic drift
Are protozoans animals? No, they are animal-like
How many phyla are recognized today? 14
What are the characteristics of protists? 1. Ubiquitous 2. Unicellular 3. eukaryotic (membrane bound nucleus and defined organelles) 4. requires moisture 5. Part of aquatic food chain(plankton)
How many species of protists are there? 64,000 to 250,000
Define ubiquitous: Found everywhere
In what ways are protists ecologically important? Many are disease causing and 10,000 species are symbiotic
Define symbiotic: long term evolutionary relationship between two species
What are the different types of symbiotic relationships mutualism (both species benefit), commensalism (once species benefits and the other species is not harmed), parasitism (one species benefits and one species is harmed)
Give an example that was shared in class for mutualism The acacia tree and ants
Name three forms of locomotion for protists pseudopodia (amoeboid movement), Cilia, flagella
define phagocytosis The engulfment of a particle by a phagocyte or protazoan
What is the process by which amoebas move? endoplasmic streaming
Define Plasmagel The stiff, jellylike granular outer layer of colloidal endoplasm in the gel state (ectoplasm - gel like state)
Define Plasmasol The central mass of colloidal endoplasm in a fluid or sol state (endoplasm - fluid state). The moves or streams to push forward psuedopodia
Define autotrophs An organism that makes its own food like plants and algae
Are protozoans autotrophs or heterotrophs? Heterotrophs as they feed on other things through intracellular digestion
Define heterotrophs An organism that feeds on other things
Define digestion organic molecules are mechanically and chemically broken down into small units for absoprtion
What are the two types of digestion intracellular and extracellular
What two groups use intracellular digestion protozoas and sponges (simpliest multicellular animals)
Which digestion system is more complex (intracellular or extracellular) Extracellular is more complex because their is an alimentary canal which enables digestion of large food masses, division of labor (some cells form digestive secretions and other cells are absorbative in nature)
Is phagocytosis involved in intracellular or extracellular digestion? Intracellular
What are the limits of intracellular digestion Can only digest small particles. All cells must be able to complete all tasks
Which amoebas causes diahrea? "Entamoeba histolytica"
What is the common name for the amoeba "Naegleria fowleri" Brain eating amoeba
What does "Naegleria fowleri" and Entamoeba hystolytica" have in common Both are amoebas and cause sickness
Are you more likely to survive having "Naegleria fowleri" or Entoemba hystolytica"? Entomoeba hystolytica causes diahrea while Naegleria fowleri is a brain eating amoeba.
What are the amoeba protozoa that have an outer shell? Forminiferans and radiolarians
What are some of the oldest known protozoans? radiolarians
What mostly marine amoeba protozoa has a shell made of calcium carbonate? forminiferan species
What marine amoeba protozoa has a shell made of silicon and how does that make it appear? radiolarian species and it appears glassy
What information did Charles Darwin use from Thomas Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" Populations tend to increase exponentially, however; resources are limited and therefore population size is limited.
What is the big assumption that Charles Darwin made in his theory of evolution? That differences among individuals are inheritable. This was an assumption because Gregor Mendel's work in genetic research had not occurred yet.
Define natural selection Certain traits give their possessors advantages in survival and reproduction
Is natural selection survival and reproduction of organisms in a population? No, because genetic drift (random changes in allele frequency due to chance such as accidents or natural disasters) can affect survival and reproduction. This is instead a definition of sorting.
What are the components to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution? 1.pop. increase exponentially, 2. resources are limited and so is pop. size, 3. only some ind. live to reproduce, 4. variation exists among ind., 5. ind. differences are inheritable, 6. some org. favor survival and reproduction (see notes for rest)
Did Charles Darwin coin the phrases "struggle for existence" or "survival of the fittest" NO
Define evolution Frequency of favorable trains will in the population. Individuals with favorable traits will survive and pass them onto their offspring.
What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution? Microevolution is when natural selection produces changes or an adaptation in an existing species. Macroevolution or speciation generates a new species.
Which scientist pushed Charles Darwin to publish the "Origin of Species through Natural Selection" and why Alfred Russell Wallace sent Darwin a manuscript with an outline of his idea of evolution. Darwin published rather than get scooped.
What is "Biston betularia"an example of? The peppered moth is an example of natural selection.
Do Australian rabbits exist? No, they are actually European rabbits transplanted to Australia.
Why are European rabbits so good at reproduction? Because they are induced ovulators. During intercourse the female is induced to ovulate and pregnancy is a sure thing!
T/F natural selection is the only mechanism for evolution? False, natural selection is one mechanism for evolution others are migration and genetic drift, mutation.
Natural selection is an interaction between what two things? characteristics of individuals and the environment. Remember the "Biston betularia" or peppered moth example of peppered vs. melanistic moth on dirty trees.
Fitness of a species is (fill in the blank) relative; different individuals make contribution of their alleles in proportion to other individuals. Species are not perfect or maximally fit. They must rely on available genetic material.
Are individuals within a population altruistic? No, they are not self sacrificing but instead self serving and desire to pass on their own genes.
T/F Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection provides us with an ethical guide. False. Darwin's theory explains how the natural world works.
What organelle inside a fresh water protozoa performs osmoregulation. Contractile vacuole
A salt water protozoan is missing contractual vacuoles because salt water is hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic? Isotonic. The function of the contractile vacuole is osmoregulation.
T/F Hypotonic is less solutes and more water True
T/F Hypertonic is less solutes and more water False. Hyptertonic is more solutes and less water
Name two forms of binary fission (asexual reproduction) Traverse and longitudinal
Is binary fission sexual or asexual reproduction? asexual
Explain why asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are both good strategies. Asexual reproduction is fast and easy so many individuals can be produced quickly. Sexual reproduction introduces variation which is key when environmental changes take effect.
What is schizogony? asexual fission that occurs multiple times.
What is sporogony? asexual schizogony that results in spores. An example would be the protozoa spp. that cause malaria.
What are different types of asexual reproduction? binary fission, budding, schizogony, colonies
What are the two steps in asexual reproduction? Mitosis (replication of DNA) and then cytokinesis (formation of organelles)
What process is involved in sexual reproduction? Meiosis (haploid gametes combine to produce diploid)
What are two examples of flagellates from the lab? Euglena (small) and volvox (colony)
Name two mutualistic flagellates? dinoflagellates (live on coral) and termite flagellates (termites could not eat wood without the termite flagellates in their guts because of the cellulose.
The flagellate "Trypanosoma brucei" causes what illness? African sleeping sickness. There is a western and eastern Africa form. The acute form can kill in 1-4 weeks the other in a couple years if untreated. Insomnia, hullicinations, behavior changes
What is the vector for "Trypanosoma brucei"? tsetse fly in Africa
The flagellate "Trypanosma cruzi" causes what illness? Chaga's disease. 1st phase - flu-like symptoms 2. then no symptoms and may last for years. 3. 20-30% symptoms will reappear and ultimately cause digestive issues and heart failure.
What is the vector for "Trypanosma cruzi"? Kissing bug in mexico, central America, South America. The bug lives in substandard mud housing, bites and defecates near the eye
What is the leading cause of diahrea? Giardia or "backpackers" disease. Flagellate protozoa drunk by back packer in unclean water.
What is the name of the phylum for the protozoa that move with cilia? Ciliophora
What are the features of the Ciliophora? Most complex of protozoa and always multicellular including macronucleaus, micromucleaus, pellicle, cytosome, trichocysts
What reproduction would you find in the phylum Ciliophora? asexual reproduction (binary fission) and sexual reproduction (conjugation)
What is a cytostome and trichocysts? cytostome (mouthlike structure for eating) trichocysts (structures found in cell membrane and have been discharged as a defense.
T/F The biological species concept or definition of a species works, but has problems True. A species is a reproductive community of populations isolated from others that occupies a specific niche in nature. However, interbreeding does occur (coyote/wolf) and some species reproduce asexually (algae/fungi).
Who defined the biological species concept and when? 1942, Ernst Mayr
define phylogeny The evolutionary history of species evidence of a common descent
define homology similarity of parts or organs of different organisms caused by evolutionary derivation from a corresponding part or organ in a remote ancestor and usually having a similar embryonic origin.(vertebrate limbs)
What is the difference between taxonomist and a systematic biologist? A taxonomists was charged with finding new species and naming them. A systematic biologists does the same, but more. A systematic biologists does more catalog a new species, they learn about their phylogeny, behavior, relationships to other species.
Describe Linneaus classification scheme. It is heirarchial system of 7 mandatory taxonomic ranks including (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species). It is a system of groups of ever increasing inclusiveness. The naming of the species is called binomial nomenclature.
What are the characteristics of a genus and species name? A genus is a noun, capitalized, and aids in memory of organism. The species is an adjective, not capitalized and describes organism's unique characteristic.
Describe the types of symmetry Intermediate/irregular (no symmetry), radial (diploblastic or 2 germ layers, bilateral (tripoblastic or 3 germ layers)
define cephalization concentration of sensory structures at anterior end of animal.
What advantage does cephalization give an animal? The ability to move forward toward food or away from a predator. An animal must have bilateral symmetry in order to achieve chephalization.
What are the characteristics of the phylum apicomplexa? all are endoparasites, all have apical complex, many have spores, sometimes have an invertebrate intermediate host (e.g. mosquitoe).
What do scientists believe that helps a parasite to enter the cell? An apical complex (series or organelles including: Polar ring, conoid, subpellicular microtubules, micronemes, rhoptry and micropore)
What illness does the genus Plasmodium cause? malaria
How many species within the genus Plasmodium? 4 "Plasmodium falciparum", "Plasmodium vivax", "Plasmodium ovale", "Plasmodium malariae"
What malaria causing species is the most prevelant and deadly? "Plasmodium falciparum"
What is the vector for Plasmodium spp." Mosquito (Anopheles spp.)
What is the plural word for genus? genera
Why do scientists believe that "Plasmodium falciparum" is so deadly? During the life cycle "Plasmodium falciparum" does not discriminate against the age of blood cells like other species of Plasmodium.
What are the four characteristics of protostomia? spiral cleavage (tight packed cells instead of stacked), mosaic development, blastopore becomes the mouth and anus forms secondarily, coelom forms by splitting (schizocoelous plan)
What are the four characteristics of the deuterostomia? Radial cleavage (cells stack on top), regulative development, blastopore develops into anus and a mouth forms secondarily, coelom forms by outpocketing (enterocoelous plan)
Define cleavage Cleavage is cell division of the zygote. The smaller cells are called blastomeres and they divide to form the embryo. Cleavage is a mitotic process.
What are the names of the three germ layers present in an embryo? mesoderm, endoderm, ectoderm
What is a blastocoel? A fluid filled cavity within the blastula (embryo that has undergone cleavage)
How many germ cells does a gastrula have? 2 - ectoderm and endoderm
Define the gastrocoel? inner body cavity that will become the gut cavity in an adult animal.
What is the advantage of a coelom? A coelom provides a tube-within-a-tube arrangement that allows much greater body flexibility than animals lacking an internal body cavity. A coelom provides space for visceral organs and permits greater size &complexity with higher surface exchange
What does the number of germ layers affect in the adult animal? The # of germ layers affects tissues present in adults.
What is an animal called when it has three germ layers? tripoblastic
What is lacking in animals that have a pseudocoelomate body plan? They are lacking a true coelom (body cavity) and instead of a false coelom. A true coelom has peritoneum lining
What is metamerism? Repitition of structural units.
What is the advantage of metamerism? Segmentation permits specialization because different segments become modified for different functions.
What are the three phyla that show true metamerism? annelida, arthropoda, chordata
What are the simplest multicellular animals? sponges also known as metazoans
What is the advantage of multicellularity? It is better to be multicellular than one giant large cell because of surface area. Volume increases at a greater pace than surface area therefore a larger organism with greater volume has less surface area in relation to volume.
Characteristics of sponges Phylum Porifera, 9,000 species, ancestor is flagellated protozoans, mostly marine, ultimate water filters, indeterminate symmetry, mass of cells imbedded in a gelantinous maxtrix stiffened by skeleton.
List the sponge canal systems in order from least complicated to most complicated asconoid (flagellated spongocoel), syconoid (flagellated canals), leuconoid (flagellated chambers)
What is the name of the sponge water canal that has flagellated spongocoel? asconoid
What is the name of the sponge water canal that has flagellated canals? syconoid
What is the name of the sponge water canal that has flagellated chambers? leuconoid
What is the advantage of leuconoid canal system over a asconoid canal system? The leuconoid canal system uses flagellated chambers and allows the sponge to filter more water and ultimately get larger. 98% of all sponges have the leuconoid water canal system.
What is the name of the sponge cell type that contracts on the surface? pinacocyte
What is the name of the sponge cell that is the collar cell and filters water? choanocyte
What is the name of sponge cell that phagocytizes food? amoebocyte
What gives a sponge its skeletal structure? collagin called spongin, silaceous spicules or calcium carbonate spicules
How does oxygen get into and carbon dioxide out of the sponge cells? diffusion
What is a gemmule? asexual reproduction in a sponge. A gemmule is a package of cells surrounded by spicules that allows the cells to go dormant until conditions are right for reproduction.
Are sponges monecious or diecious? Sponges are monecious (one house). Each sponge is both male and female?
What is the advantage of being monecious? Only have to find another kind of your species instead of specifically a male or female. Monecious species rarely self fertilize.
Do sponges move during reproduction? during sexual reproduction the larvae is motile.
What class of sponges has a skeleton of calcium carbonate spicules? Class Calcarea
What class of sponges has a skeleton of silica? Class Hexactinellida
What class makes up 80% of all sponges? Class demospongiae. skeleton is siliceous, spongin or both. commercial sponges are from this class.
What is the important evolutionary advancement of tissue development? Cells can work together for a common function and can diversify responsibility. Organism can become more complex.
Are Cnidarians diploblastic or triploblastic? diploblastic with two tissue layers (epidermis and gastrodermis). Between the epidermis and gastrodermis is the mesoglea.
Is the mesoglea a true tissue layer? No, it is found between the epidermis and gastrodermis. It is secreted by the epidermis and is a jelly-like layer.
What are the examples of Cnidarians coral, jelly-fish, sea anenomes
True or False. species from the phylum Cnidaria are very important both ecologically and economically True. the coral reefs are the rainforests of the oceans and make tourists pay money to visit and see the corals.
What is the name of the elevated structure that holds the mouth of a Cnidarian? Hypostome
That is the name of the body structure of a Cnidarian Gastrovascular cavity (GVC) Coelenteron. Cnidarians have an incomplete gut.
What are the general form characteristics of a Cnidarian? gastrovascular cavity (incomplete gut), body wall (epidermis, mesoglea, and gastrodermis), tentacles
What is the advantage to a Cnidarian of being pliable? They can eat things larger than themselves and can therefore do not have to eat very often.
What does it mean to be polymorphic? To have two or more different forms.
What are the polymorphic forms of Cnidarians? Polyp form - adapted for sessile or sedentary existence and attached to the substrate with a pedal disc. Medusa Form - freely floating or loosely swimming form.
What polymorphic form in Cnidarians is an evolutionary advancement and why? The medusa form allows Cnidarians to move.
What is the difference between the three classes of Cnidaria (Anthozoa, Sephozoa, hydrozoa)? Anthozoa - polyp only form (corals); sephozoa (mostly medusa form but has a polyp larval stage); hydrozoa (both forms equally important in life cycle).
True or False. A nematocyst is a stinging cell? False. It is stinging organelle that resides inside a cell until triggered. The cell it is found in is called a cnidocyte.
What is the number one reason why cnidarians are so successful Nematocysts allow them to eat fish.
Describe the digestion of a Cnidarian. Digestion starts in the gastrovascular cavity (extracellular digestion), but finishes with intracellular digestion.
Where would you find cnidocyte holding nematocysts? Inside the epidermis of the tenticles and also within the gastrovascular cavity or gastrodermis to help combat food.
What evolutionary advancement do Cnidarians have? a nerve net of sensory cells, neuron cells and muscle cells.
Do Cnidarians reproduce sexually or asexually? Both. They can produce buds or lacerate the pedal disc.
Are cnidarians monoceous or dioceous? Dioceous. Individuals are either male or female and not both as in the phylum Porifera.
What stage of the Obelia life cycle is sexual and what stage is asexual? Polyp (asexual) and the medusa (sexual)
What is the largest class of the phylum Cnidaria? Anthozoa (corals and sea anenomes)
What is missing in the Cnidarian nerve net that humans have? myelin sheath which in humans increases the response time or the speed of the snapsis between nerve cells
What is the name of the feeding polyp found within the hydroid colony Obelia? Hydranth
What is the name of the covering surrounding the hydranth? Hydrotheca
What is the name of the reproductive polyp found within the hydroid colony Obelia? goganium
What is the name of the covering surrounding the goganium? Gonotheca
What is the name of the root-like stolon that anchors the Obelia colony to the substrate? hydrorhiza
What is the name of the stalk found within the hydroid colony Obelia? hydrocaulus
What is the name of the inner living part of the Obelia stalk that surrounds the gastrovascular cavity? coenosarc
What is the name of the outer non-living part of the Obelia stalk that serves as support and strength to hold up the hydrocaulus? perisarc
What makes Obelia a colony? Many terminal buds that do not separate and become specialized in their function. Including hydranths for feeding and gonangia for housing reproductive medusa polyps.
What is the name of the opening in the gonangia? gonopore
What are the parts of a medusa velum, manubrium, statocysts, ocelli
What part of a medusa helps with its equilibrium? statocysts
What part of a medusa helps with light detection? ocelli
What is the class name for Portuguese man-of-war? Physalia
What is the name of the class for Venus's Flower Basket? hexactinellida (glass sponges)
What is used to differentiate species of sponges? Spicules act as a fingerprint.
What is the first known animal to reproduce sexually? sponges
What protein is found in all animals? collagen
What is the evolutionary advancements of a coelom? The tube-within-a tube arrangement allows for greater flexibility, space for visceral organs, allows for greater size and complexity by exposing more cells to surface exchange.
In the class Anthozoa, what is the name of the grouping of cilia to get water into the pharynx? siphonoglyph
What does stony coral excrete and build with? calcium carbonate exoskeleton
What animals belong in the class Anthozoa? coral and sea anenomes
What does the medusa from the class hydrozoa have that the medusa from the class Scyphozoa not have? Vellum
What class of the Cnidarian phylum has vellum in its medusa? Hydrozoa
What conditions are necessary for coral (scyphozoa) to grow an exoskeleton? warm water (20degrees C)and shallow water. Coral reefs are therefore found between 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S. They are sensitive salinity and turbidity.
What mutualism is necessary for choral to grow coral and dinoflagellates
What is the mutualistic relationship between dinoflagellates and coral? Dinoflagellates live within the coral for protection and food and absorb the CO2 admitted for photosynthesis. The absorption of CO2 prevents the water from becoming to acidic for the formation of calcium carbonate exoskeletons.
What are the common name for species from the phylum Ctenophora? comb jellies and sea walnuts
What are the characteristics of species from the phylum Ctenophora? about 150 spp., 8 rows of comb-like plates with cilia, largest animal that swims exclusively with cilia, Marine predators without nematocysts, bioluminescence
What are the evolutionary advancements of the Cnidarian? First animals to move, development of mouth to stomach, nerve net (nerves trigger muscles to move).
Evolution has a BLANK basis? genetic
Created by: tjc154



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