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bio 181 test #1

chapter 1, 20-22

what is life/alive maintains homeostasis reproduction using/metabolizing energy produces waste
seven characteristics of life cells ordered complexity-not chaotic sensitivity-respond to stimuli growth,development,reproduction energy utilization homeostasis evolutionary adaptation
living systems show hierarchal organization -cellular level -organismal level -populational level -ecosystem level -biosphere
emergent properties more than the sum of its parts, not additive novel properties arising from the way in which components interact -life --result from interaction of components --cannot be deduced by looking at parts themselves
3 domains of life archae bacteria eukaryote
deductive reasoning uses general principles to make specific predictions
inductive reasoning uses specific observations to develop general conclusions
scientific method the systematic approach to understand natural world -observation -hypothesis formation -prediction -experimentation -conclusion
hypothesis possible explanation for observation -must be tested to determine its validity -often tested in many different ways -allows for predictions to be made -repetitive/iterative --can be changed and refined with new data
independent variable condtion
dependent variable measurement
controlled varaibles variables that are not changed
qualitative data -descriptions -data observed, but cant be measured ex) colors, smells, beauty
quantitative data -number -measured ex) length, height, time
scientific theory broad and strong explanation-supported by lab books of scientific research with minimum influence of human bias ex)cell theory
genetic variation the differences in alleles of genes found within individuals of a population
evolution descent with modificiation change over time
inheritance of acquired characteristics changes that occur during lifetime are passed down to children ex)long neck giraffe
how to monitor how populations change look at changes in allele frequencies of a gene from one generation to the next
population genetics the study of the properties of genes in populations
how to directly assay genetic variation within populations electrophoresis RFLPs--exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences sequencing entire genomes SNPs--a variation in a DNA sequence
hardy Weinberg equilibrium requirements no mutation no immigration or emigration mating is random the population size is very large no selection occurs
allele frequencies a measure of the occurrence of an allele in a population
genotype frequencies a measure of the occurrence of a genotype in a population
reproductive success how long an individual survives how often it mates how many offspring
frequency dependent selection favors either rare or common phenotypes
oscillating selection favored phenotypes changes as the environment changes
hypothesis driven science makes a tests predictions find out which general principles are true by systematically testing alternative proposals and rejecting them if untrue from observations
test experiment one variable is altered in a known way to test a particular hypothesis
control experiment the variable is left unaltered
reductionism analyzing simple and basic physical mechanisms to explain complex phenomenons
theory a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon (based on some general principle) the body of interconnected concepts(supported by scientific inquiry and experimental evidence)
the cellular level atoms join together to create molecules whice are assembled into organelles which are within cells
the organismal level tissues(groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit) organs(groups of tissues)(brain)(structural and functional unit) organ systems(groups of organs)(nervous system)
the populational level population(group of organims of the same species living in the same place species(populations of a specific type of organism)(able to interbreed)
biological community all populations of different species living together in one place
the ecosytemal level ecosystem(populations interact and with their environment)
the biosphere entire planet
natural selection mechanism for evolution
malthus populations increase by a multiplying factor how populations grow
homologous same evolutionary origin different structure and function
analogous similar functions different evolutionary origin
macroevolution speciation/evolution of new species form old species evidence: homologous and analogous traits-similar embryonic development
microevolution evolutionary change WITHIN species
mechanisms/modes/forces of evolution forces that change the genetic structure of a population mutation natural selection gene flow/migration genetic drift(random) recombination
mutation an allele changes to another allele thereby altering the gene only source of new alleles create and maintain new generic variation rare
natural selection differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype/traits
gene flow/migration movement of genes between population
genetic drift(random) random changes in allele frequencies -natural disasters,large fatal diseases -reduces genetic variation in small populations -founders effect and population bottleneck
recombination combination of genetic material from two different gametes (sexual selection) -offspring differ from parents(crossing over and independent assortment)
point mutation single base in DNA sequence is changes most common type of mutation evolutionary not all bad
selective agent of NS environment
artificial selection occurs fast with many changes and can produce major evolutionary changes humans as selective agent ex: faster horses and sweeter apples
Lamarck's view keep stretching necks throughout lifetime and then pass this on to babies #false
Darwin-Wallace view only giraffes that can reach taller leaves survive so long necked trait is favored and is reproduced
natural selection operates on the individual/the phenotype (already present) variation -which is hereditary
evolution acts on the population
small populations result from population bottleneck and founders effect
population bottleneck sudden decrease in population size
founders effect few pioneering individuals colonize new region ex)amish
non-random mating the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not teh same for all possible pairs of individuals ex)having a certain type to date
dissasortative the reproductive pairing of individuals that have traits more dissimilar than would likely be the case if mating were random
assortative the reproductive pairing of individuals that have more traits in common than would likely be the case if mating were random
inbreeding breed closely related people or animals especially over many generations
inbreeding depression the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding
balancing selection multiple alleles are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population, natural selection will favor uncommon allele so the two alleles remain balanced in amount-depend on each other
disruptive selection extreme values favored over usual population
intersexual selection both individuals are involved in choosing a mate
intrasexual selection two members of the same sex compete for mate
directional selection a single phenotype is favored
stabilizing selection mean values are favored
sexual dismophism difference in size and appearance ex)female spiders are bigger than male spiders
fixed creationism before darwin organisms are created as they are and remain in the same form since the beginning no new organisms
Linneaus binomial nomenclature taxonomy scientific name
gradualism James Hutton-geology earth is old and ever-changing the accumulation of small changes extreme of evolution standard view for a long time
lamarke coined the term "evolution" -process of changes of life over long periods of time stupid giraffe theory though
three conditions of natural selection genetic variation exists in population leads to differences among individuals in reproductive success must be genetically transmitted to next generation
biogeography how animals and plants are distributed wallace=founder
convergent evolution unrelated lineage, similar traits now environment selects traits(similar environmental pressures) ex)birds and bats
homologous traits evolutionary descent from common ancestor ex)bats and human and whale bones
analogous traits similar due to common adaptive function ex) wings
species concept ernst mayr groups reproductively isolated and potentially or actually interbreeding
ecological species concept where a species adapted to a niche in the environment
phylogenetic species concept the smallest set of organisms that share an ancestor and can be distinguished from other sets
evolutionary species concept a species=maintains its identity from other such lineages/species and has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate
galapagos finches evidence of NS corrrespondance of beak shape and food gathering shows finches diversified and adapted aka NS
sympatric speciation speciation within same area-no geographical seperation
allopatric speciation geographic seperation causes speciation
speciation creation of new species that can exchange genes/interbreed and create futile offspring evolutionary process by which new biological species arise -form from isolation, environmental change
reproductive isolating mechanisms prevent genetic exchange between species random changes/genetic drift + adaptation can lead to pre zygotic post-zygotic
pre-zygotic isolating mechanisms prevent formation of zygote temporal, behavioral, ecological, mechanical
post-zygotic isolating mechanism prevent normal development into reproducing adults
reinforcement natural selection increases reproductive isolation
homogenization prevent speciation from ocurring
adaptive radiation species + new/changed environment + many resources + few competing species ex) Darwin's finches
key innovation the evolution of a new trait that allows individual to use previously inaccessible parts of the environment
punctuated equilibrium long periods of stasis followed by relatively rapid change an extreme of evolution stabilizing and oscillating selection is responsible for stasis
a reverse in environmental conditions = a reverse in selection pressure
"evolutionary change occurs in the ___ of beak sizes in the ____ generations" frequencies subsequent
subspecies within a single species, individuals in populations that occur in different areas may be distinct from one another
ecological isolation live or dwell in different areas ex)tree lions pre
behavioral isolation select mates after elaborate courtship display ex)blue footed boobies need to do ritual well to be selected or at all pre
temporal isolation species of wild lettuce, but one flowers in the spring one in the summer pre
mechanical isolation structure of copulating organs may not be compatible ex)pollen may not reach the right part pre
prevention of gamete fusion eggs and sperm in water not fuse with other species pre
hybrid inviability hybrids dont develop hybrids will not survive into adulthood they will become weak or sterile or abnormal sex organs post
anagenesis when population of entire species changes on genetic level with out a split -ancestral population goes extinct
cladogenesis species splits into two genetically distinct populations adapted to different ecosystems and/or survival strategies-both species may survive types of speciation
adaptive radiation causes pioneering a new habitat containing few competing organisms mass extinction wiping out competitors -surviving forms radiate to occupy niches left behind
hybrid sterility hybrids may develop, but they are not fertile
hybridization the process of combining different varieties of organisms to create a hybrid
types of qualitative data ordinal-order, scales 1-5 nominal-lables
types of quantitative data interval-numeric scale ratio-measurement scale
Darwinian fitness It measures the reproductive success of an entire population of organisms.​ You can not relate Darwinian Fitness to a single organism.
part of Darwin's theory on the origin of species All organisms are related through descent from a common ancestor. ​A population can change over time if individuals that posses certain traits leave more offspring than others. There are always variations within a given population.​
developmental homology organism that develop similarly in the womb-evidence of common ancestors
Created by: gopack



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