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Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
The movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; that is, from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration (opposite to the normal direction of diffusion) active transport
pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine adrenergic
force of attraction between a medication and receptor affinity
medication that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate an expected response agonist
medication that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others agonist-antagonist
the absence of the sensation of pain analgesia
the absence of all sensations anesthesia
medication that binds to a receptor but does not cause it to initiate the expected response antagonist
test that determines the amount of purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory assay
the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions autonomic ganglia
test to ascertain a medication's availability in a biological model bioassay
amount of medication that is still available after it reaches its target tissue bioavailability
relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent medications bioequivalence
time the body takes to clear one-half of a medication half-life
special name given to the metabolism of a medication biotransformation
tight junctions in the capillary endothelial cells in the central nervous system vasculature through which only non-protein-bound, highly lipid-soluble medications can pass blood-brain barrier
process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell-membrane facilitated diffusion
pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine cholinergic
one medication binding to a receptor and causing the expected effect while also blocking another medication from triggering the same receptor competitive antagonism
the movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration diffusion
medication packages that contain a single dose for a single patient dose packaging
binding of a medication or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease down-regulation
foreign substance placed into the human body drugs
length of time the amount of medication remains above its minimum effective concentration duration of action
a medication's ability to cause the expected response efficacy
delivery of a medication through the gastrointestinal tract enteral route
common side effects, of antipsychotic medications, including muscle tremors and parkinsonism-like effects extrapyramidal symptoms
movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space; movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure filtration
the liver's partial or complete inactivation of a medication before it reaches the systemic circulation first-pass effect
proportion of a medication available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects free drug availability
become electrically charged or polar ionize
a competitive antagonism permanently binds with a receptor site irreversible antagonism
agents used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease. medications
the total changes that take place during physiologic processes; the body's breaking down of chemicals into different chemicals metabolism
minimum level of medication needed to cause a given effect minimum effective concentration
specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates neuroeffector junction
nerve cell; cell that transmits electrical impulses neuron
chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse neurotransmitter
the binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding noncompetitive antagonism
the time from administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration onset of action
movement of a solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration osmosis
medication or other substance that blocks on inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system parasympatholytic
medication or other substance that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system parasympathomimetic
delivery of a medication outside the gastrointestinal tract; typically using needles parenteral route
movement of a substance without the use of energy passive transport
how a medication interacts with the body to cause its effects pharmacodynamics
how a medication is absorbed, distributed, metabolized (biotransformed), and excreted; how medications are transported into and out of the body pharmacokinetics
the study of medications and their interactions with the body pharmacology
biochemical barrier at the maternal-fetal interface that restricts certain molecules placental barrier
describes the length, onset, duration, and termination of action, as well as the medication's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels plasma-level profile
nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissues postganglionic nerves
nerve fibers that exit the central nervous system and terminate in the autonomic ganglia preganglionic nerves
medication that is not active when it is administered, but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites prodrug
medication that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics prototype
specialized protein that combines with a medication resulting in a biochemical effect receptor
chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually causes a medication's desired effects second messenger
state of decreased anxiety and inhibitions sedation
unintended response to a medication side effect
medication or other substance that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system sympatholytic
medication or other substance that causes effects like those of the sympathetic nervous system sympathomimetic
minute space between nerve cells synapse
medication that may deform or kill a fetus teratogenic drug
time from when the medication's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body termination of action
when a medication causes the formation of more receptors than normal up-regulation
flexible, clear plastic tubing that connects IV solution to the IV cannula administration tubing
air in the vein air embolism
breakable glass vessel containing liquid medication ampule
cleansing agent that is not toxic to living tissue antiseptic
a condition free of pathogens asepsis
medications administered through the mucous membranes of the ear and ear canal aural medications
administration tubing that contains a filter to prevent clots or other debris from entering the patient blood tubing
concentrated mass of medication bolus
between the cheek and the gums buccal
calibrated chamber of Buretrol IV administration tubing that enables precise measurement and delivery of fluids and medication solutions burette chamber
hollow needle used to puncture a vein cannula
surgical puncture of the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral vein central venous access
an excess in intravascular fluid volume circulatory overload
intravenous solution containing large proteins that cannot pass through capillary membranes colloidal solution
weight per volume (example: 5mg in 15 mL) concentration
intravenous solution that contains electrolytes but lacks the larger proteins associated with a colloid crystalloid
cleansing solution that is toxic to living tissue disinfectant
the amount of medication available in a solution dosage on hand
clear plastic chamber that allows visualization of the drip rate drip chamber
device that regulates the size of drops drop former
foreign particle in the blood embolus
IV tubing used to extend a macrodrip or microdrip setup extension set
leakage of fluid or medication from the blood vessel that is commonly found with infiltration extravasation
outside the vein extravascular
the size of a needle's diamater gauge
needle that has an opening on the side of the shaft instead of the tip Huber needle
state in which a solution has a higher solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other side hypertonic
state in which a solution has a lower solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane that on the other side hypotonic
hollow metal tube used with the syringe to administer medications hypodermic needle
liquid medication delivered through a vein infusion
gravity-flow device that regulates the fluid's passage through an electromechanical pump infusion controller
device that delivers fluids and medications under positive pressure infusion pump
within the dermal layer of the skin intradermal
within the muslce intramuscular
within in the bone intraosseous
surgical puncture of a vein to deliver medication or withdraw blood intravenous access
state in which solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane are in equal concentration isotonic
administration tubing that delivers a relatively large amount of fluid macrodrip tubing
careful handling to prevent contamination. (process commonly used in prehospital medicine) medically clean
administration tubing that delivers a relatively small amount of fluid microdrip tubing
vial with two containers, one holding a powdered medication and the other holding a liquid mixing solution nonconstituted medication vial
medications administered through the mucous membranes of the eye ocular medications
semiflexible catheter enclosing a sharp metal stylet over-the-needle catheter
surgical puncture of a vein in the arm, leg, or neck peripheral venous access
line threaded into the central circulation via a peripheral site PICC line
syringe packaged in a tamperproof container with the medication already in the barrel prefilled syringe
sharp-pointed device inserted into the IV solution bag's administration set port spike
a strict form of infection control that is based on the assumption that all blood and other body fluids are infectious Standard Precautions
free of all forms of life sterile
the layer of loose connective tissue between the skin and muscle subcutaneous
beneath the tongue sublingual
medication packaged in a soft, pliable form for insertion in the rectum suppository
plastic tube with which liquids medications can be drawn up, stored, and injected syringe
throughout the body systemic
inflammation of the vein thromboplebitis
blood clot thrombus
material applied to the skin or mucous membranes topical medications
absorbed through the skin transdermal
use of high frequency sound waves to produce images of internal body structures ultrasound
device that holds blood tubes vacutainer
surgically implanted port that permits repeated access to central venous circulation venous access device
plastic or glass container with a self-sealing rubber top vial
a drug effect that is unique to the individual indiosyncrasy
decreased response to the same amount of drug after repeated administrations tolerance
tolerance for a drug that develops after administration of a different drug cross tolerance
rapidly occurring tolerance to a drug. May occur after a single dose tachyphylaxis
increased effectiveness when a drug is given in several doses cumulative effect
patient becomes accustomed to the drug's presence in the body and will suffer from withdrawal symptoms on its absence drug dependence
the effects of one drug alter the response to another drug drug interaction
the effects on one drug block the response to another drug drug antagonism
two drugs that both have the same effect are given together (1+1=2) summation
two drugs that both have the same effect are given together and produce a response greater than the sum of their individual responses (1+1=3) synergism
one drug enhances the effect of another potentiation
the direct biochemical interaction between two drugs; one drug affects the pharmacology of another drug interference
ratio of a medication's lethal dose for 50 percent of the population to its effective dose for 50 percent of the population therapeutic index
solute concentration or osmotic pressure relative to the blood plasma or body cells tonicity
Created by: mlauhoff