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chem and biochem ap

Name the four types of macromolecules protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid, lipid
Name the two categories of lipids triglyceride, steroid
What is the backbone molecule of a triglyceride? glycerol
What are two amphipathic molecules we discussed? soap, phospholipid
What is on the end of the cholesterol molecule that makes the very tip of this very nonpolar molecule, have a polar spot OH
How many polypeptides in catalase, antibody, and hemoglobin molecules? four
What level of protein structure involves hydrogen bonding creating alpha helices and beta sheets? secondary level
What bonds are important in primary level of structure in proteins? peptide
which level of protein structure involves the order of the amino acids? primary
What portion of the amino acid is unique for each amino acid? R group
What two parts of an amino acid combine to form a peptide bond and water molecule? OH from caboxyl group and H from amino group of second amino acid
What is different between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids? saturated fatty acids are all single bonds
What two atoms make up almost all of a fatty acid? C and H
What is the formula for a disaccharide made two glucoses? C12H22O11, remember deh. synthesis, water released
What are two atoms of the same element varying in neutrons? isotopes
What must happen to an atom to become a cation? lose an electron, positive ion
What are three molecules that can bind to hemoglobin besides nitrous oxide? CO, CO2, O2
What is the y axis of an oxygen dissociation curve? % saturation (usually hemoglobin)
What are the two purines? A and G
How many rings in cytosine nitrogen base? one: pyrimidine
What is the oxygen binding molecule in the muscle? myoglobin
What does ATP become when broken? ADP + P (energy released)
What is the most common buffering molecule in the ocean? bicarbonate ion
What is the formula for bicarbonate? HCO3-
What is the pH of rain water? 5.6
What is an immunoglobulin? antibody
What is the shape of an immunoglobulin? Y
What type of macromolecule is ATP? nucleic acid: adenosine nucleotid with two extra Phosphates
What macromolecule has N rings? nucleic acid
What part of an amino acid bond to the carboxyl group? amino group
Each car on a train had different cargo, what part of an amino acid is analogous to the cargo? R group: only part that is different: amino group and carboxyl groups allow for the train cars to hook together.
How many atoms in 2 molecules of glucose? 48: 12 C, 24, H, 12 O
What ending indicates a molecule is a sugar? ose
What ending indicates a molecule is an enzyme? ase
What atoms make up waxes? C and H: nonpolar
What type of bond has atoms of equal electronegativity sharing electrons? nonpolar covalent
What intermolecular bond explains cohesion of water? hydrogen bonding
What characteristic due to H bonding leads to a belly flop hurting? surface tension: too many H bonds at once
What characteristic of water allows for the ocean to change temperature slowly? high specific heat value
What characteristic of water allows for evaporation of sweat to keep us cool? high heat of vaporization
What is the combination of adhesion and cohesion that can move water up thin polar tubes a small distance? capillary action
What two characteristics combine to move water up a tree? transpiration/cohesion
Why is there always one purine with one pyrimidine in the DNA molecule? Same number of rings leads to equal width of double helix. Purine 2 rings, pyrimidine 1, always three total.
Why did ice cold water heat up faster than water with ice in it? Energy applied to water with ice was used to melt ice instead of speeding up molecules.: heat of fusion.
What force eventually causes water on a penny to spill over? gravity of the water
Why did pepper sink in the demo in class? more dense than water
Name the four polysaccharides and which two are in plants. glycogen, chitin, cellulose, starch: last two in plants
What is cellulose made of? glucose molecules
How many amino acids are there in human proteins? 20
What bonding causes alpha helix? hydrogen bonding
What is the term that when one oxygen binds to hemoglobin, the other three binding spots become more accessible? cooperativity
When something bind to a protein to make it functional, what is this? activation
When something binds to a protein to make in nonfunctional or less functional, what is this? inhibition
When environmental conditions change causing a protein to change it shape to be nonfunctional? denaturation
What is the term for molecules that bind to an enzyme to improve its function? cofactors/minerals and vitamins
Assist proteins in their folding up chaperone proteins
bonds away from the binding site to change function of protein to be better or worse, what is this? allosteric
another word for shape of protein conformation
insulin is what type of macromolecule? protein
What is true of essential amino acids? need them in our diet, as nonessential are made by body
What is true of complete proteins vs incomplete proteins? Complete has all of the essential amino acids
IF 20% of DNA sample is G, what % is T? 30% C and G would both be 20% then 60% remaining split between A and T.
What is albumin? egg white protein
What mineral holds catalase together? iron
What does catalase break down? hydrogen peroxide
What part of the water molecule is positively charged? hydrogon atoms
What steroid is a plant pigment? chlorophyll: absorbs light energy
What part of the phospholipid is nonpolar? two fatty acid tails
What happens to the H+ concentration if the pH drops by 3? 1000 X as concentrated
What happens to the H+ concentration when NaOH is added to water? Goes down as OH- bond to H+ and remove them
What happens to H+ concentration when carbon dioxide concentration goes up? H+ goes up, pH goes down, acidic
What color indicator turned yellow in the blowing CO2 into water demo? bromothymol blue
The bohr effect is a change in the oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin based on what environmental change? drop in pH
What two environmental conditions lead working muscles to have their hemoglobin molecules let go of oxygen more easily? low pH (lactic acid/bohr effect) and decreased O2 levels
Created by: whames4
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