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EBR EMS Chapter 2 Definitions

alkaline any substance that contributes to an excess of OH- ions
amino acid chemical units from which protein molecules are built
aqueous solution liquid mixture in which water is the solvent
atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries
atom smallest particle of a pure substance
atomic mass combined total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
atomic number total number of protons in an atom's nucleus
base a chemical that reduces the relative concentration of H+ ions in the whole solution
biochemistry scientific field that studies the chemical properties and processes of living organisms
carbohydrate organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in certain specific proportions
cholesterol steroid lipid found in all body cell membranes and in animal fat present in food
compound substance whose molecules have more than one kind of element in them
covalent bond chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons share electrons by overlapping their energy levels
dehydration synthesis chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together
dissociate when a compound breaks apart in solution
double helix shape of DNA molecules
electrolyte substance that ionizes in solution, rendering the solution capable of conducting an electric current
electron negatively charged particle orbiting the nucleus of an atom
element pure substance, composed of only one type of atom
energy level limited region surrounding the nucleus of an atom at a certain distance containing electrons
enzyme a functional protein acting as a biochemical catalyst allowing chemical reactions to take place in a suitable timeframe
glycogen polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose
hydrolysis chemical reaction in which water is added to a large molecule causing it to break apart into smaller molecules
inorganic compound compound whose molecules do not contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
ionic bond chemical bond formed by the positive-negative attractions between two ions
isotope two atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses
lipid organic molecule usually compound of glycerol and fatty acids
lock-and-key model analogy of how hormones fit into enzymes
matter any substance that occupies space and has a mass
molecule particle of matter composed of one or more smaller units
neutron electrically neutral particle within the nucleus of an atom
nucleic acid the two nucleic acids are DNA and RNA, made up of nucleotides
nucleotide small units that form strands of nucleic acid
nucleus center control structure in the middle of the cell
orbital limits within which electrons move
organic compound compound whose large molecules contain carbon and that include C-C bonds
peptide bond covalent bond linking amino acids within a protein molecule
pH expression of relative H+ concentration
phospholipid fat molecule found in cell membranes
product any substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
protein one of the basic nutrients need by the body
proton positively charged particle within the nucleus of an atom
radioactive isotope an isotope that emitts radiation
reactant any substance entering a chemical reaction
solute substance that dissolves into another substance
solvent substance in which other substances are dissolved
triglyceride lipid that is synthesized from fatty acids and glycerol or from excess glucose or amino acids
Created by: hjkruse