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Nura 115 Blood Trans

Blood Products, Transfusions, and Complications

QuestionAnswer
Type of Blood Components are? (5) Packed red blood cells Platelets Fresh-frozen plasma Albumin Cryoprecipitates
Packed red blood cells Anemia and increase in erythrocyte count
Platelets Evaluation of effective response determined by improvement in platelet count, normally assessed 1 hour and 18 to 24 hours after transfusion
Fresh-frozen plasma Evaluation of effective response determined by improvement in coagulation studies, PTT, resolution of hypovolemia
Albumin Evaluation of effective response determined by improvement in vital signs, particularly increase in blood pressure, and increase in serum albumin level
Cryoprecipitates Evaluation of effective response determined by improvement in clotting factors, particularly factor VIII and fibrinogen
Types of Blood Donations (4) Autologous Blood salvage Designated donor Normal Donation
Transfusions (4) RBC transfusion Platelet transfusion Plasma transfusion Granulocyte (WBC) transfusion
Why are RBC Transfusions given? Given to replace cells lost from trauma or surgery
Why are Platelet Transfusions given? Given for low platelet counts, active bleeding, scheduled for invasive procedure
Why are Plasma Transfusions given? Given to replace blood volume and clotting factors
Why are Granulocyte Transfusions given? Given (rarely) to neutropenic patients
Acute Transfusion Reactions (7) Febrile Hemolytic Allergic Bacterial Circulatory overload Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) TRALI
Hyperkalemia with transfusions The older the blood, the greater the risk for hyperkalemia, because hemolysis causes potassium release Monitor for muscle weakness, paresthesias, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dysrhythmias
Hypocalcemia with transfusions Monitor for hyperactive reflexes, paresthesia, cramps, positive Trousseau’s and Chvostek’s signs Slow transfusion rate, notify physician if signs occur
Disease transmission during transfusions Hepatitis C is commonly transmitted disease Other transmitted diseases may include hepatitis B, HIV, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, malaria
Septicemia signs during transfusions Monitor for signs; these include rapid onset of chills and high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension, shock
Septicemia interventions during transfusions Interventions include notifying physician, obtaining blood cultures and cultures from blood bag, administering oxygen, IV fluids, antibiotics, vasopressors, corticosteroids as prescribed
Circulatory overload signs during transfusions Monitor for signs; these include cough, dyspnea, chest pain, wheezing, hypertension, tachycardia
Circulatory overload interventions during transfusions Interventions include slowing rate of infusion, placing client upright with feet in dependent position, notifying physician, administering oxygen, diuretics, and morphine sulfate as prescribed, monitoring for dysrhythmias
Signs of delayed reactions Monitor for signs of delayed reactions; delayed reactions may occur up to 1 year following transfusion, fever, mild jaundice, decreased hematocrit level
Interventions for Transfusion complications include stop the transfusion start 0.9% normal saline notifying physician and blood bank monitoring client closely preparing to administer emergency medications sending urine specimen to laboratory returning all blood tubing and bags to blood bank
preparing to administer emergency medications (3) antihistamines vasopressors corticosteroid
Created by: M1144843