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public health

population at risk groups of people who have the greatest potential to develop a particular health problem
prevalence total number of people affected by a particular condition at one time
incidence number of new cases of a particular condition identified during a specified period of time
epidemic outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond what is normally found in the population
pandemic large epidemic affecting several countries or one or more continents
rates primary measurement used to describe either the occurrence or existence of a specific state of health or illness
morbidity ratio of the number of deaths in various categories to the number of people in the population
types of epidemiologic research descriptive, analytic, experimental
epidemiologic research does what? identifies community/public health problems and describes natural history and etiology of diseases
applying epidemiologic principles in practice preventing and controlling outbreaks. contributing to a safe/healthy environment. evaulating effectiveness of health services
specific rates indicators of the health of a community, region, or country - include comparisons of general mortality rates and maternal infant rates - calculated by person, place, time
epidemiologic findings used to promote the best practices and behaviors for healthy communities
community assessment identify community health problems that are priorities for intervention as well as community resources available to address each health problem or need
coalition group of consumers, health professionals, policy makers, and others working together to improve community health status or to solve a specific community health problem
stakeholder individual, organization, or group that has an interest (stake) in a specific community health issue or the outcome of a community-level intervention
health behavior change can be at individual or community level - requires sustained effort and results that may not be evident in the short term
types of community health assessment comprehensive (CHANGE), population focused, setting specific, problem or health issue based, health impact, rapid needs
needs assessment identify problems/issues. priorities are set based on identification needs
assessment mapping identifies positives. focuses on effectiveness, builds interdependence, identifies how to best use resources, empowers people
health planning organized and systemic process in which problems are identified, priorities selected, and objectives set for the development of community health programs based on the findings of community health assessments and health surveillance data
SMART objectives specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time bound
category strategies political, community empowerment, health promotion and education, case management, home visits
quad council provides voice and visibility for public health nurses, sets national policy agenda on issues related to public health nursing, and advocates for excellence in public health nursing, education, practice, leadership and research
political strategies policy development, community organizing, lobbying and advocacy, presenting testimony, voting, campaigning, holding office
community empowerment strategies issue selection, group development - orientation, accommodation, negotiation, operation and dissolution
health promotion and education strategies health education - health literacy, social marketing, branding, tailoring, legislation. community health workers
purposes of pt education maintenance and promotion of health and illness prevention, restoration of health, coping with impaired functioning
teaching communication through an interactive practice that aids an individual to acquire new knowledge, behaviors, or skills to make a change
learning purposeful acquisition of new knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, or skills which causes change
domains of learning cognitive, affective, psychomotor
teaching approaches telling, participating, entrusting, reinforcing, incorporating with other activities
teaching methods one on one, group, prepatory, demonstrative, analogies, role play, simulation, technology
community benefit programs emphasis on communities with disproportionate unmet health related needs, emphasis on primary prevention
epidemiologists those who investigate possible causes of disease to better understand how to prevent and treat disease
cause indicates that a stimulus or action results in an effect or outcome
causality refers to determining whether a cause and effect relationship exists b/t a risk factor and health effect
causal relationship present when there is a direct or indirect relationship b/t 2 factors
direct relationship factor causes the disease - ex) mumps virus causes mumps
indirect relationship when factor contributes to development of the disease through its effect on other variables - ex) obesity does not cause DM II but increases risk of having it b/c of presence of other factors
epidemiologic triangle classic model used in epidemiology to explain the occurrence of disease - 3 main components: agent, host, environment
epidemiology study of the distribution and determinants of status of health and illness in human populations - used as research methodology and as a body of knowledge
consistency association b/t supposed cause and its effect is consistent - always occurs in same direction
strength of association greater correlation b/t supposed cause and effect, the greater the possibility the relationship is causal
specificity supposed cause always creates same effect
temporal relationship supposed cause always occurs before the effect
coherence supposition that one event causes another is coherent with other existing knowledge
risk probability that a given individual will develop a specific condition - factors: susceptibility, exposure potential
rates of occurrence statistical measures that indicate the extent of health problems in a group - number of occurrence divided by size of population at risk
web of causation de-emphasizes the agent as the sole cause of disease while emphasizing the interplay of physical, biological, and social environments
ecological framework uses groups, not individuals, as the unit of analysis - effective model defines, understands, changes behavior, and ultimately promotes population level health and wellness
public health science scientific foundation of public health practice bringing together environmental sciences epidemiology, biostatistics, biomedical sciences, and social and behavioral sciences
population large group whose members may or may not interact with one another but share at least one characteristic
aggregate represents a unit of analysis, group, or sum of individuals at which level the healthcare provider analyzes and reports data
community individuals recognize membership in group b/c of shared geography or commonalities based on social interaction and establishment of ties to other members and may join in collective decision making
3 core functions of public health assessment, policy development, assurance
health promotion interventions aimed at achieving optimal health
modifiable risk factors susceptibility to disease or injury that can be controlled by individual people, families, or communities
social learning behavior change model that considers environmental influences, personal factors, and behavior as key components to change
behavior change models models that assist clients, groups, and communities to redirect activities toward health and wellness
theory reasoned action behavior model that emphasizes that individual performance of a given behavior is primarily determined by a person's intention to perform that behavior - peer pressure to do or not to do something
learning model behavior change model emphasizing reinforcement of social competence, problem solving, autonomy, and sense of purpose
ecological model belief that all processes occurring within individual people and their environment should be viewed as interdependent
natural history of disease exposure, pathologic changes, onset of symptoms, usual time of diagnosis
clinical course of disease stage of susceptibility, stage of subclinical disease, stage of clinical disease, stage of recovery, disability, or death
primary prevention maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place before illness or injury is present - ex) care seats, vaccines
secondary prevention maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place at the early and active chronic stages of pathogenesis of illness and injury - ex) mammograms, prostate exams, pap smears
tertiary prevention maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place at the end-stage of disease and injury - ex) case management, chronic disease management
Created by: stephanie.gage