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Animal Physiology

Exam 1: Chapter 1

Animal Physiology "how animals work"; integrative; fundamental biology of animals
Mechanisms (ex. Firefly light) components of organisms that enable performance; main physiological goal
Natural Selection *increase gene frequency that produces phenotypes to survival *changes in alleles (genes); changes in evolution
Adaptiation physiological mechanism; product of evolution; aid in survival and reproduction
Adaptive Significance Why natural selection occurs
Mechanistic Phyisology emphasizes mechanisms; Proximate causation
Evolutionary Phyisology emphasizes evolutionary origins and changes of physiology
Comparitive Phyisology compares synthetic functions between animals; comparison of different taxa groups to help solve problems
Environmental Phyisology how animals respond physiologically to environment; response to ecological conditions
Integrative Phyisology uses all levels of biology to compare
Type of Study: First Level descriptive (not observational); may be quantitative or qualitative
Type of Study: Second Level correlative study- relation of events, proper design controls for basis of collection, NO cause and effect
Type of Study: Third Level manipulative- experiment with treatment and controls, proper design controls for basis of collection, cause and effect determined
Type of Study: Fourth Level synthesis- smaller puzzles into bigger picture, model how things work
Proximate causation reflection of mechanisms; how questions, "how it works"
Ultimate causation reflection of origin; evolutionary reason, "why it works" ex. ice cream "yummy" vs efficient food source
Adaptation ** review** adjustment of population due to genes x environment, no longer assumed it has to be measured (ex. caterpillar: food vs growth)
Homeostasis *internal consistancy *critical for proper function; conformity and regulation (ex. homeotherms- thermoregulators)
What's an example of mixed conformity and regulation? Salmon: body conforms to river temperatures and regulates chlorine levels
Oxyconformers **review hypoxic environments; increase ventilation rate and slow down metabolism (ex. trout)
Oxyregulators **review no hypoxic conditions; low oxygen can resu;t in death (ex. mahi mahi)
Negative Feedback the act of regulating a system to keep it constant; a systems response to change in the variable back towards its set point
controlled variable property being kept constant by a systems activity
Set point level at which the control variable is kept
Feedback occurs if the system uses into on the controlled variable to go into action
Feedback Time Frame: Actue exhibit during first few miutes or hours of change from external environment; short term; reversible change
Feedback Time Frame: Chronic due to prolonged exposure of external environmenat; days or weeks; reversible
Feedback Time Frame: Evolutionary between generations; alteration of gene frequencies; affects populations
Feedback Time Frame: Developmental Change change in physiology from child to adult; genes programmed to be expressed at certain stages of development
Feedback Time Frame: Control by Periodic Biological clock
Acclimation chronic response to a changed environment
Acclimization chronic response of individuals to a changed environment
Homeostasis, Regulation, and Conformity are types of.... Responses
Regulation Allows cells to fxn in a steady condition, not affected by external environment; costly in energy
Conformity cells within body change when outside conditions change
Created by: aalvarez239