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Ch 1 and Atlas A

Homeostasis and Anatomical terminology

Homeostasis The body's ability to detect change and activate mechanisms that oppose it thereby maintaining stable internal conditions
Negative feedback Process by which body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it
Stimulus Change from a set point
Afferent pathway Neurons carrying information towards the central nervous system
Efferent pathway Neurons carrying information away from the central nervous system
Sensor/receptor Tthat senses a change in the body
Integrating/control center Processes information and "makes a decision" about what the appropriate response should be
Effector Cell or organ that carries out the action to return the body to its set point
Positive feedback A physiological change leads to a greater change in the same direction
Sagittal plane Divides body or organ into right and left portions
Midsagittal plane Divides the body or organ into equal right and left halves
Frontal/coronal plane Divides the body or organ into front/back portions
Transverse plane Divides the body or organ into upper and lower portions.
Ventral Towards the front or belly
Dorsal Towards the back or spine
Anterior Toward the ventral or front side
Posterior Toward the dorsal or back side
Superior Towards the head
Inferior Towards the tail
Medial Towards the middle of the body or medial plane
Lateral Away from the middle of the body or medial plane
Proximal Closer to the point of attachment
Distal Further from the point of attachment
Superficial Closer to the body surface
Deep Farther from the body surface
Cranial cavity Cavity within the skull and contains the brain
Meninges Membranes around the brain
Vertebral canal Contains the spinal cord within the vertebrae
Thoracic cavity Cavity containing the lungs found within the rib cage
Mediastinum Region between the lungs containing the heart, esophagus, and trachea
Pericardium Membrane around the heart
Visceral pericardium Inner layer of pericardium forming the surface of the heart
Parietal pericardium Outer membrane layer around the heart
Pleural membrane Membrane around the lungs
Visceral pleura Membrane that forms external surface of lungs
Parietal pleura Lines the inside of the rib cage
Abdominal cavity Cavity containing most of the digestive organs
Pelvic cavity Located within the hip bones
Peritoneum Membranes within the abdominopelvic cavitity
Parietal peritoneum Lines the abdominalpelvic cavity walls
Visceral peritoneum Suspend and surround organs such the small intestine within the abdominal cavity
Created by: Heathersconn